Jan 2, us secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its




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1922       


Feb 27, The Supreme Court unanimously upheld the 19th Amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed the right of women to vote.

Mar 18, Mohandas K. Gandhi was sentenced in India to six years' imprisonment for civil disobedience. He was released after serving two years.
Sep 21, Pres Warren G. Harding signed a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

Sep 21, The US passed a tariff act. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff bill (named after Joseph Fordney, chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Porter McCumber, chair of the Senate Finance Committee) was signed by President Warren Harding. In the end, the tariff law raised the average American ad valorem tariff rate to 38 percent.

Sep 28, Mussolini marched on Rome.

Oct 26, Italian government resigned under pressure from fascists and Benito Mussolini.

Oct 28, Fascism came to Italy as Benito Mussolini took control of the government.

Oct 30, Mussolini sent his black shirts into Rome and formed a government. The Fascist takeover was almost without bloodshed.

Oct 31, Mussolini was made prime minister.

Nov 4, British archeologist Howard Carter was elated when his Egyptian workers uncovered the top of a stairway cut into bedrock in the Valley of the Kings. For a decade, Carter had been searching for the tomb of the young king Tutankhamen, who had ruled Egypt 3,200 years before.

Nov 5, King Tut’s tomb was discovered.

Nov 30, Hitler spoke to 50,000 national socialists (Nazis) in Munich.

Dec 30, Vladimir I. Lenin proclaimed the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet Russia was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Soviet Union was organized as a federation of RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Belorussian SSR and Transcaucasian SSR.

-The Warner Brothers, Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack, opened their first West Coast studio.

-Adolph Hitler and Hermann Goring became friends and political allies because of their mutual hatred of the Versailles Treaty. In 2004 Anthony Read authored "The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle."

-In the Rapallo Treaty Germany recognized Lenin's regime.

-In India civil disobedience demonstrators killed 22 police officers and Gandhi called off his campaign of disobedience.

-The Irish Republican Army refused to accept a separate Northern Ireland under British rule.

Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.


1923       


Jan 13, Hitler denounced the Weimar republic as 5,000 storm troopers demonstrated in Germany.

Mar 2, In Italy, Mussolini admitted that women have a right to vote, but declares that the time was not right.

Mar 15, Lenin was felled by his 3rd stroke.

Apr 15, The first sound films shown to a paying audience are exhibited at the Rialto Theater in New York City.
Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria.

Jul, Officially sanctioned chuck wagon racing started at the Calgary Stampede in Canada.

Aug 2, Vice President Calvin Coolidge went to bed at 9 p.m. at his father’s home in Plymouth, Vermont, where he was enjoying a short vacation. It took several hours for the news of President Warren G. Harding’s death in California to reach the small town, but by 2 a.m., Coolidge was told that Harding was dead. Traditionally, the president is sworn in by the chief justice of the Supreme Court—but he slept 500 miles away.

Nov 12, Adolf Hitler was arrested for his Nov 8 attempted German coup.


1924


Jan 21, Russian revolutionary Vladimir Ilyich Lenin died at age 53 and a major struggle for power in the Soviet Union began. A triumvirate led by Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin. By 1928, Stalin had assumed absolute power, ruling as an often brutal dictator until his death in 1953 of a brain hemorrhage

Jan 24, The Russian city of St. Petersburg was renamed Leningrad in honor of the late revolutionary leader. It has since been re-named St. Petersburg.
Mar 5, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Corp became IBM.

Apr 1, Adolf Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison for "Beer Hall Putsch." Gen Ludendorff was acquitted for leading the botched Nazi's "Beer Hall Putsch" in the German state of Bavaria

May 10, J. Edgar Hoover was appointed head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation at age 29.

Jun 6, The German Reichstag accepted the Dawes Plan, an American plan to help Germany pay off its war debts.

Nov, The 1st Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade was held in New York's Herald Square.

Dec 20, Adolf Hitler was released from prison after serving less than one year of a five year sentence for treason.

-The Du Pont company introduced rayon. It was a synthetic fiber manufactured from the cellulose fiber of natural wood pulp.

-The Ku Klux Klan numbered four million.


1925        


Jan 3, Benito Mussolini dissolved the Italian parliament and became dictator.

Jan 16, Leon Trotsky was dismissed as CEO of Russian Revolution Military Council. Stalin took power over Trotsky.

Mar 4, President Calvin Coolidge's inauguration was broadcast live on 21 radio stations coast-to-coast.

Mar 23, Tennessee became the 1st state to outlaw teaching the theory of evolution. Tennessee’s Governor Austin Peay said, "the very integrity of the Bible in its statement of man’s divine creation is denied by any theory that man descended or has ascended from any lower order of animals."

May 5, John T. Scopes was arrested in Tennessee for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Jun 10, Tennessee adopted a new biology text book denying the theory of evolution.

Jul 10, The Scopes "Monkey Trial," started. It was the result of a conspiracy hatched at Robinson’s Drug Store in Dayton, Tenn. John Scopes, a young high-school teacher, was to become the test case on the legality of Tennessee’s anti-evolution law. An aging William Jennings Bryan, Nebraska fundamentalist and politician, was the prosecutor and Clarence Darrow was Scopes’ defense attorney. Earlier in 1925, the Tennessee State legislature had passed a law making it illegal to teach the theory of evolution in schools. Many people believed that Darwin’s theory contradicted the idea of biblical creation. The trial, complete with the spectacle of a cynical Darrow interrogating Bryan on the witness stand as "an expert on the Bible," aroused national interest and caused heated controversy over Darwin’s evolution theory. Scopes was judged guilty and fined $100, but later let off on a technicality. The trial coverage dealt a blow to American anti-evolution forces. It was the first trial to be broadcast by radio.

Jul 18, Hitler published "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle). It became the bible for the Nazi Party. The book is filled with anti-Semitic writings, a disdain for morality, worship of power, and the blueprints for world domination.

Oct 16, The Texas School Board prohibited the teaching of evolution.

Nov 5, Mussolini disbanded Italian socialist parties.

Nov 9, German Nazis formed the SS (Schutzstaffel- elite special forces).

-Al Capone took over power in Chicago’s underworld, where 400 gang murders per year were recorded.

-The Locarno Treaty was signed between Britain, Belgium, Germany, Italy and France. It was a treaty of non-aggression by Germany, France and Belgium and a mutual guarantee and promise of assistance by Britain, France, Belgium, Germany and Italy to maintain the demilitarization of the

Rhineland. It was not a true guarantee against a German invasion, only a promise by Britain to send troops after an invasion.

-In Italy Benito Mussolini assumed dictatorial powers.\


1926       


Feb 9, Teaching theory of evolution was forbidden in Atlanta, Georgia, schools.

May 3, U.S. marines landed in Nicaragua and remained until 1933.

May 17, Chiang Kai-shek was made supreme war lord and "generalissimo" in Canton.

Aug 23, The death of silent film actor Rudolph Valentino caused a worldwide frenzy among his fans. Valentino, who appeared in only 14 major films during his brief seven-year movie career, was idolized by countless women as the "Great Lover" of the 1920s

Nov 19, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from Politburo in the USSR.

-The American Eugenics Society was founded and supported the position that US upper classes were justified in their positions of wealth and power because of their genetic superiority.

-Abe Saperstein created the Harlem Globetrotters, an all-black player basketball entertainment team.


1927      


Mar 24, Chinese Communists seized Nanking and broke with Chiang Kai-shek over the Nationalist goals.

May 1, Adolf Hitler held the first Nazi meeting in Berlin.

May 20, Charles Lindbergh (25) took off from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, NY, at 7:40 AM aboard the Spirit of St. Louis on his historic solo flight to France. The Spirit of St. Louis, was capable of flying 4,000 miles on 425 gallons of fuel. His greatest problems on the 33-hour, 30-minute flight were staying awake and keeping ice from forming on the airplane’s wings

Oct 6, The era of talking pictures arrived with the opening of "The Jazz Singer," starring Al Jolson singing and dancing in black-face. The movie featured both silent and sound-synchronized scenes.

Oct 27, Fox Movie-tone news, the first sound news film, was released.

Nov 12, Josef Stalin became the undisputed ruler of the Soviet Union as Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party.

-Walt Disney (1901-1966) created the cartoon character Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. He was a precursor to Mickey Mouse.

-In China Mao Tse-tung led a peasant uprising in Hunan Province.


1928        


Jan 10, The Soviet Union ordered the exile of Leon Trotsky. Stalin triumphed over Bolshevik Party opposition led by Trotsky, Leo Kamenev, and Gregory Zinoviev.

Mar 5, Hitler’s National Socialists won the majority vote in Bavaria.

Jun 2, Nationalist Chiang Kai-shek captured Peking, China, in a bloodless takeover.

Jun 17, Amelia Earhart embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to Wales with pilots Wilmer Stultz and Louis Gordon, becoming the first woman to make the trip as a passenger.

Aug 27, Fifteen nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, outlawing war and calling for the settlement of disputes through arbitration. Forty-seven other countries eventually sign the pact.  The pact was developed by French foreign minister Aristide Briand and U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg.

Sep 15, Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovered, by accident, that the mold penicillin has an antibiotic effect.

Oct 6, Chiang Kai-shek was elected the president of China.

Britain introduced universal suffrage. British women over age 30 had voted since 1918.

Stalin introduced the 1st Soviet Five-Year Plan. Stalin pushed his farm collectivization program killing and displacing millions of peasants.

-Stalin began his plan for the resettlement of Jews to Birobidzhan, an area of land the size of Belgium on the Russian-Chinese border. It was officially declared the Jewish Autonomous Region and by 1930 some 230,000 people lived in colonies there. Yiddish language and culture was fostered but worship was forbidden.


1929       


Feb 11, The Lateran Treaty was signed, with Italy recognizing the independence and sovereignty of Vatican City. The Italian government paid the Vatican $91.7 million for the papal lands it seized in 1870.

Feb 14, In Chicago the "St. Valentine's Day Massacre" took place in a garage of the Moran gang as seven rivals of Al Capone's gang were gunned down. Police found seven men shot to death in a North Chicago garage.

Jun 27, Scientists at Bell Laboratories in New York revealed a system for transmitting television pictures.

Jun 27, Pres. Von Hindenburg refused to pay the German debt of WW I.

Oct 24, Black Thursday, the first day of the stock market crash, began the Great Depression. Dow Jones was down 12.8%. Stock values collapsed and 13 million shares changed hands as small investors frantically tried to sell off their holdings. Thousands of confused investors and brokers were ruined and banks, which had also invested heavily in the market, failed when they could not produce enough cash on demand for angry depositors.

Oct 28, The DJIA dropped 12.8%. Dow Jones plummeted 38.33 pts (13%) to 260.64. Just before the Great Crash the Ladies Home Journal proclaimed: "Everyone Ought to Be Rich."

Oct 29, The DJIA dropped 11.7%. "Black Tuesday" was the worst day of the market crash as panicked survivors dumped 16 million shares on the market. Clerical workers stayed up all night to find that $30 billion in paper value had been wiped out in one day. Prices collapsed amid panic selling and thousands of investors were wiped out as America's Great Depression began. On Wall street prices plunged $14 million. By mid- November $30 billion of the $80 billion worth of stocks listed in September were been wiped out

-Jenny R. Bramley (d.1997 at 87) became the first woman to receive a doctorate in phys-ics in the US. Her patents included such devices as color-television tubes and early tubes used in computer terminals.
-Joseph Stalin reset the Soviet calendar to give workers every 5th day off. Shifts were staggered so that factories could run without interruption. The staggered working week was abandoned after 3 years.


1930       



Feb 18, Pluto, the ninth planet of our solar system, was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh (1907-1997) at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. It is 2.76 billion miles (5,888 million km.) from the sun at the

Apr 6, Hostess Twinkies were invented by bakery executive James Dewar.

Apr 30, The Soviet Union proposed military alliance with France and Great Britain.

Jun 17, Pres. Hoover signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill, placing the highest tariff on imports to the U.S. It was sponsored by Willis Hawley, a congressman from Oregon, and Reed Smoot, a senator from Utah. An international trade war began with the US passage of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. Foreign countries retaliated. Many economists blame Smoot-Hawley for deepening the depression. It reflected the "Protectionism" of the times.

Sep 14, Nazis took 107 seats in German elections.

Dec 12, Last Allied troops left the Saar.

-A computer study in 2000 suggested that the AIDS virus was introduced to the human population from chimp and monkey variants about this time.

-The Soviet Union began deporting land holders, known as kulaks, along with their families as part of the rural collectivization process. The kulaks made up about a fifth of the Russian peasant class, which consisted of some 25 million households.


1931         


Mar 3, Pres. Hoover signed a bill making "The Star-Spangled Banner", written by Francis Scott Key, the national anthem of the United States: act of Congress
Apr 1, In NYC the Empire State Building opened a month ahead of schedule. A dirigible mast established the height at 1,250 feet above street level.

Apr 14, In Spain a Republic was declared. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was overthrown and went into exile, and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed.

Jun 12, Al Capone and 68 of his henchmen were indicted for violating Prohibition laws. Capone was indicted on 5,000 counts of prohibition & perjury.

Jul 1, Ice vending machines were introduced in LA.

Sep 17, The 1st LP record was demonstrated by RCA Victor in NYC. The venture failed.

Dec 12, Under pressure from the Communists in Canton, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as President of the Nanking Government but remained the head of the Nationalist government that held nominal rule over most of China.

-Jehovah’s Witnesses adopted their name.

-In the US 20,000 people committed suicide.

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