Jan 2, us secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its




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НазваниеJan 2, us secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its
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1932       


Jan 28, The Japanese attacked Shanghai, China, and declared martial law.

Feb 2, Al Capone was sent to prison at Atlanta, Georgia, for "tax evasion."

Mar 1, Charles Lindbergh Jr. (20 months), the infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was kidnapped from his nursery at the family home near Hopewell, (Princeton) N.J. A handwritten note left at the scene demanded a $50,000 ransom. Under relentless public scrutiny, the Lindberghs complied with the ransom demands, but on May 12, the child’s remains were found two miles from their home. German immigrant Bruno Richard Hauptmann was arrested and convicted for the crime amid a frenzy of biased media coverage.

Apr 2, Aviator Charles A. Lindbergh and Dr. John F. Condon turned over $50,000 in ransom to an unidentified man in a New York City cemetery in the Bronx, in exchange for Lindbergh’s kidnapped son. The infant, however, was not returned, and was found dead the following month.

May 21, Amelia Earhart made her first transatlantic solo flight from Newfoundland to Ireland.

Jun 16, The ban on Nazi storm troopers was lifted by the von Papen government in Germany. Germany forbade SA/SS street brawls.

Aug 13, Adolf Hitler refused President Hindenburg’s offer to serve as Franz Von Papen's vice chancellor saying he was prepared to hold out "for all or nothing."

Sep 12, The German Reichstag under the new chairmanship of Hermann Goring gave a vote of no confidence to Franz von Papen and his government. Just before that vote was taken, Papen had slapped an order on Göring's desk dissolving the Reichstag and calling yet again for new elections.

Nov 8, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated incumbent Herbert Hoover for the presidency. Roosevelt became the 32nd president with about 87% of the Electoral College.

The Dust Bowl hit the US and 12 million people were out of work, 24% of the labor force. 30 million were unemployed in all the major industrial countries.

-Stalin imposed terror and famine on the Ukraine, Kuban and Kazakhstan that was carried out be Lazar Kaganovich. Millions died in the famine. Stalin provoked what the Ukrainians called the Great Famine as part of his campaign to force Ukrainian peasants to give up their land and join collective farms. During the height of the famine, which was enforced by methodical confiscation of all food by the Soviet secret police, cannibalism was widespread.

-The approximate number of "Okies" who fled to California during the Dust Bowl was 300,000-400,000. Already battered by the Great Depression, small farmers in eastern Colorado, western Texas and Kansas, and Oklahoma were devastated by a dry-weather cycle that created swirling dust storms in the mid-1930s. Those who fled the farms for work in California were dubbed "Okies," a term popularized by John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath. The Okies sought a stable life in California on farms of their own but were largely forced to become migrant workers in California’s great agricultural valleys and live in ramshackle shantytowns.


1933       


Jan 30, German President Paul von Hindenburg made Adolf Hitler chancellor. After World War I, Germany fell into disarray and looked for a leader to strengthen it again. Hitler had emerged after joining the Nazi Party in 1919 and taking it over in 1921. In 1932 Hitler ran against von Hindenburg and lost--but not by a wide margin. The Nazis won 230 seats in the German parliament and continued to gain influence, stifling democracy and communism by force and by making laws against them. After Hindenburg's death in 1934, Hitler proclaimed himself Der Führer of the Third Reich.

Feb 6, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich began to press censorship.

Feb 27, Germany's parliament building, the Reichstag, caught fire. The Nazis blamed the Communists and used the fire as a pretext for suspending civil liberties and increasing their power. Georgi Dimitrov, a Bulgarian Communist, was one of the accused plotters, but was acquitted.

Feb, The US Congress passed the 21st amendment to repeal the 18th amendment, which outlawed alcohol.

Mar 5, Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered a four-day bank holiday in order to stop large amounts of money from being withdrawn from the banks.

May 8, Gandhi began a hunger strike to protest British oppression in India.

Mar 12, President Roosevelt delivered the first of his radio "fireside chats," telling Americans what was being done to deal with the nation’s economic crisis.

Mar 23, The German Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act, which effectively granted Adolf Hitler dictatorial legislative powers, i.e. the power to rule by decree.

Mar 31, Congress approved, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed, the Emergency Conservation Work Act (Reforestation Relief Act), which created the Civilian Conservation Corps. The US unemployment rate reached 25%. In its nine years of existence, the New Deal’s Civilian Conservation Corps had a total of 2.9 million men aged 18 to 25 enrolled. The program was designed to provide jobs for young men in the national forests, conservation programs and national road construction.

Apr 1, Heinrich Himmler became Police Commander of Germany (Reichsfuhrer-SS).

May 10, The Nazis staged massive public book burnings at Opernplatz in Berlin, Germany. Some 40,000 people watched or took part. In the great Nazi book-burning frenzy Freud’s work went up in flames, with the declaration: "Down with the soul-devouring exaggeration of instinctive life, up with the nobility of the human soul!" Also burned were books by "unGerman" writers such as: Marx, Brecht, Bloch, Hemingway, Heinrich Mann and Erich Maria Remarque, author of All Quiet on the Western Front.

May 18, The Tennessee Valley Authority Act was signed by President Roosevelt. The TVA proceed to build damns in the Tennessee Valley.

Jun 22, Germany became a one political party country as Hitler banned parties other than the Nazis.

Jul 1, German Nazi regime decreed married women should not work.

Jul 14, All German political parties except the Nazi Party were outlawed.

Oct 17, Due to rising anti-Semitism and anti-intellectualism in Hitler’s Germany, Albert Einstein immigrated to the United States. He made his new home in Princeton, N.J.
Dec 5, Prohibition was repealed--much to the delight of thirsty revelers--when Utah became the 36th state to ratify the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The nationwide prohibition of the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages was established in January 1919 with passage of the 18th Amendment. Prohibition's supporters gradually became disenchanted with it as the illegal manufacture and sale of liquor fostered a wave of criminal activity. By 1932, the Democratic Party's platform called for the repeal of Prohibition. In February 1933,

Dec 23, The Pope condemned the Nazi sterilization program.


1934       

Jan 1, Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., the US bank guarantor, became effective.
Feb 7, Kathleen Norris, a SF Bay Area novelist based in Palo Alto, summed up a trip to Germany saying Hitler has virtually solved problems of unemployment and poverty. She said the leader was

Mar 3, John Dillinger broke out of jail using a wooden pistol in Crown Point, Indiana.

Apr 7, In India, Mahatma Gandhi suspended his campaign of civil disobedience.

May 2, In Germany a Chancellery meeting took place between Adolph Hitler and executives of General Motors Corp. and its German division (Opel). Opel quickly became an essential element in German rearmament.

May 13, A great dustbowl storm occurred.

May 23, Bonnie Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (24) were shot some 4 dozen times early in the morning in a police ambush by Texas Rangers as they were driving a stolen Ford Deluxe along a road in Bienville Parish, near Sailes, La. This ended the most spectacular manhunt seen in America up to that time. The pair had spent the previous 2 years killing and robbing banks in the Midwest. Bonnie Parker was 19 and Clyde Barrow was 21 when they met in Dallas in 1930.

May 28, The Dionne quintuplets—Annette, Cecile, Emilie, Marie and Yvonne—were born to Elzire Dionne at the family farm in Ontario, Canada. The were children removed from their parents by the Ontario government and put on public display, before paying customers, at a theme-like-park called Quintland.

Jun 28, Hitler flew to Essen (Night of Long Knifes) where a massive purge of SA (storm troopers) was carried out to placate the Army and the high command.

Jun 30, Adolf Hitler began his "blood purge" of political and military leaders in Germany. Among those killed was one-time Hitler ally Ernst Roehm (46), gay leader of the Nazi stormtroopers. Hitler personally confronted Rohm in a jail cell and left a single shot pistol in the cell. Ten minutes later, Rohm had killed himself. Hitler purged the Nazi Party by destroying the SA and bringing to power the SS in the "Night of the Long Knives." Also killed were Gregor Strasser (42), German pharmacist, Nazi leader and Karl Ernst, German SA-leader.

9, SS-Reichs Fuhrer Heinrich Himmler assumed command of German Concentration Camps.

Jul 25, There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Nazis. Hitler murdered Austria’s Chancellor Dollfus.

Aug 11, The US government opened a maximum security prison on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and the first federal prisoners arrived.

Aug 19, A plebiscite in Germany approved the vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler as Fuhrer. 38 million Germans voted to make Adolf Hitler the official successor to President von Hindenburg.

Oct 8, Bruno Hauptmann, a carpenter and illegal alien, was indicted for murder in the death of the infant son of Charles A. Lindbergh. He had been caught with $14,000 of the Lindbergh baby ransom money.

Oct 16, Mao Tse-tung decided to abandon his base in Kiangsi due to attacks from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists. With his pregnant wife and about 30,000 Red Army troops, he set out on the "Long March." In late 1935, with 8,000 survivors, he reached Hanoi in northwest China, and established Chinese Communist headquarters.

Dec 1, Sergei M. Kirov, a collaborator of Josef Stalin, was assassinated in Leningrad, a stronghold of opposition to Stalin. This resulted in a massive purge. Kirov was succeeded by Andrei Zdhanov, who became the virtual dictator of literary and artistic policies of the USSR.

Dec, Parker Brothers purchased the game of Monopoly from George Darrow and rewrote the rules. -George Parker had rejected the 1st version of Monopoly submitted by Darrow and cited 52 fundamental errors. In 2003 Philip E. Orbanes authored "The Game Makers:

-Hollywood introduced Technicolor to the big screen.

-The German propaganda documentary film "Triumph of the Will" was made by Leni Riefenstahl.

-Hitler asked Ferdinand Porsche Sr., owner of a consulting and design firm, to build a "people’s car," from which resulted the Volkswagen.

-The Soviet Union’s secret police organization-the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs-was better known as the NKVD. The NKVD replaced the State Political Administration, or GPU. The GPU had formerly been known as the Cheka.

1935       


Feb 26, Germany began Luftwaffe operations under Reichsmarshal H. Goering.

Mar 7, Saar was incorporated into Germany.

Mar 15, Joseph Goebbels, German Minister of Propaganda banned four Berlin newspapers.
Mar 16, Adolf Hitler ordered a German rearmament in violation of the Versailles Treaty.

Jun 16, President Roosevelt's New Deal legislation was passed by the House of Representatives.

Aug 14, The Social Security Act became law as President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Social Security Bill, providing assistance to the poor and needy. It created an old-age and unemployment insurance, and supplemented mothers’ pensions with Aid to Dependent Children.

Sep 15, In Berlin, the Reich under Adolf Hitler adopted The Nuremberg Laws which deprived German Jews of their citizenship, made the swastika the official symbol of Nazi Germany and established gradations of "Jewishness." "Full Jews," people with four "non-Aryan" grandparents, were deprived of German citizenship and forbidden to marry members of the "Aryan race." German Jews, had been barred since 1938 from government, medical, and legal professions, and shut out from every area of German public life.

Oct 3, Italy invaded Ethiopia.

Nov 14, Nazis stripped German Jews of their citizenship.

-The first electric typewriter came into use.


1936       


Jan, Standard Oil of California found some gas and oil at their 1st Saudi Arabia test well, Damman No. 1.

Mar 7, Adolf Hitler ordered his troops to march into the demilitarized Rhineland, thereby breaking the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact.

Apr 3, Bruno Hauptmann, convicted for the kidnapping of the Lindbergh baby, was electrocuted in Trenton, N.J. He claimed his innocence until he died.

May 2, With the Italian invasion Ethiopia’s Emp. Haile Selassie left for French Somaliland. He went into exile for 5 years during which time he was based in Bath, England.

May 5, Italian troops occupied Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Aug 1, The 11th Olympic games, dubbed "The Nazi Games," opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler. Jesse Owens won four gold medals including the 100-meter dash--becoming the world's fastest man. Owens also set new Olympic records in the long jump, the 200-meter dash and the 4 x 100-meter relay. Aug 4, Jesse Owens (1913-1980) won his 2nd Olympic medal (long jump) at the Berlin Olympics.

Aug 19, A trial against Ljev Kamenev and Grigori Zinoviev, for alleged "Trotskyism," opened in Moscow.

Sep 11, President Roosevelt dedicated Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam) by pressing a key in Washington to signal the startup of the dam’s first hydroelectric generator in Nevada. The Dam was completed ahead of schedule.

Sep 21, The Spanish fascist junta named Franco generalissimo, supreme commander.

Nov 6, RCA displayed TV for press.

Nov 15, Nazi Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Komintern pact.

Dec 11, Britain's King Edward VIII abdicated the throne in order to marry American divorcee Wallis Warfield Simpson. Edward VIII had been king of Great Britain and Ireland for less than a year when he abdicated the throne to marry "the woman I love,"--the twice-divorced American Wallis Warfield Spencer Simpson.

-John Maynard Keynes, English economist, published "The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money." It taught that the classic model of Adam Smith was a special case and only applied in times of full employment. At other times he asserted that the economy needed a large and activist government to steer it on the road of full employment. He advised governments to increase money supply to overcome Depression. His theories played a part in Roosevelt's New Deal which helped revive the US economy.


1937       


Jan 23, 17 people went on trial in Moscow during Josef Stalin’s "Great Purge."

Mar 17, Amelia Earhart took off from Oakland, Ca., in an attempt to become the first pilot to fly around the globe at the equator
Apr 26, German planes from the Condor Legion--sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to help fascist General Francisco Franco overthrow the communist Popular Front regime-- attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,600-1,650 Basque civilians and injured 900. Although the alleged target was a bridge of military significance some distance from the town, dazed survivors described a merciless four-hour bombing and strafing attack by German pilots directed toward the village and its inhabitants. The Guernica atrocity became synonymous with the horror of modern warfare and inspired one of the 20th century's greatest works of art, Guernica, by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.

May 6,    At 7:25 p.m. the giant German airship (dirigible or zeppelin) Hindenburg burst into flames and crashed to the ground as it attempted to dock with a mooring mast at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey. Carrying 36 passengers and 61 crew, Hindenburg left Frankfurt on May 4 for its first transatlantic voyage of the 1937 season. A total of 36 died when the fire ignited the 16 hydrogen-filled cells and destroyed the zeppelin in only 34 seconds. It was 803 feet long and had private rooms for 50 passengers. It had an 11,000 mile range.

May 27, The newly completed Golden Gate Bridge connecting SF and Marin County, Calif., was opened to pedestrian traffic

Jul 2, Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan left Lae in Papua, New Guinea and disappeared over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first round-the-world flight at the equator. The two had set out in Earhart's twin-engine Lockheed Electra, taking off from Oakland, Calif., for Miami on May 21. They flew across the Atlantic from Brazil to Africa, then reached Calcutta on June 17, having made 15 stops thus far. They failed to arrive at their scheduled stop at Howland Island. Radio operators received messages from Earhart saying that they had to be close and were circling, searching for land, but radio contact was lost and the two were never heard from again. Noonan was alcoholic and had been on a binge the night before. Radioman Leo Bellarts was the last person to communicate with Earhart. Errors from the US Coast Guard cutter Itasca were later identified as contributing to the disappearance.

Jul 31, The Russian Politburo enabled Operative Order 00447. This led to the execution of some 193,000 people.

Aug 1, The Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany, became operational. By April 11, 1945, an estimated 56,000 people were killed here, including approximately 11,000 Jews.

Aug 5, In Russia Stalin signed NKVD order no 00447 that mandated all prison camps across the Soviet Union to be emptied.

Aug 13, Japanese attacked Shanghai.

Sep 15, Prime Minister of England Neville Chamberlain flew to Germany to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia with Adolf Hitler.

Sep 21, "The Hobbit," by J.R.R. Tolkien (b.1892), was first published.

Dec 13, The Japanese army occupied Nanking, China. A group of Japanese soldiers forced their way into the family home of Xia Shuqin (8) in Nanjing, and killed seven of her family members. Xia and her 4-year-old sister were seriously injured but escaped.

Dec 14, Japanese troops conquered and plundered Nanjing. Japan established a puppet Chinese government at Peking, now called Beijing.

-The first McDonald’s opened in Pasadena, Ca.

-The USSR census of this year reported a decline in the population to 162 million and Stalin had the officials responsible for the count shot. He had told officials a year earlier that the count would be 170 million, which ignored those who died in famines and purges.

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