Jan 2, us secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its




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НазваниеJan 2, us secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its
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1944       


Jan 16, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower assumed supreme command of the Allied Expeditionary Force in London.

Feb 24, Col. Juan Peron, Argentine minister of war, staged a coup.

Feb 25, U.S. forces destroyed 135 Japanese planes in Marianas and Guam.

Apr 2, Soviet forces entered Romania, one of Germany's allied countries.

Apr 13, South Carolina rejected black suffrage.

Apr-Jul, Hungarian authorities facilitated the deportation of some 437,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.

May 5, Gandhi was freed from prison.

May 6, The Red Army besieged and captured Sevastopol in the Crimea.

May 14, Gens Rommel, Speidel and von Stulpnagel plotted to assassinate Hitler.

May 16, The 1st of over 180,000 Hungarian Jews reached Auschwitz.

May 19, The Gustav line, the German defense line in Italy, collapsed under heavy assault by Allied troops.

Jun 6, By the end of D-Day 156,000 Allied soldiers had come ashore on the Normandy beaches with losses of 2,500 men. By the end of the day, the Allies had established a tenuous beachhead that would lead to an offensive that pinned Adolf Hitler's Third Reich between two pincers--the Western Allies and the already advancing Soviets--accelerating the end of World War II. A million Allied troops, under the overall command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, moved onto five Normandy beachheads in three weeks. Operations “Neptune” and “Overlord” put forces on the beaches and supplies aimed at the liberation of Europe and the conquest of Germany. Operation Overlord landed 400,000 Allied American, British, and Canadian troops on the beaches of Normandy, France. In addition, US and British airborne forces landed behind the German lines and US Army Rangers scaled the cliffs at Pointe de Hoc. More than 6,000 trucks of the Red Ball Express kept gasoline and other vital supplies rolling in as American troops and tanks pushed the Germans back toward their homeland.

Jun 13, Only one week after the Normandy invasion, the first German V-1 buzz bomb, also called the doodlebug (Fieseler Fi-103), was fired at London. The first guided missile to be used in force, the V-1 was powered by a pulse-jet engine and resembled a small aircraft.

Jun 19, The Battle of the Philippine Sea (Battle of the Marianas), called the "Marianas Turkey Shoot," began when Japanese naval forces attacked the stronger U.S. naval forces. 280 Japanese planes were shot down by U.S. carrier- based planes and anti-aircraft fire from U.S. ships. Americans shoot down 220 Japanese planes while only losing 20

Jun 20, The US Congress chartered the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Jun 20, Nazis began mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz.

Jun 25, British assault at Caen, Normandy.

Jun 27, During World War II, American forces completed their capture of the French port of Cherbourg from the Germans.

ul 1, Delegates from 44 countries began meeting at Bretton Woods, N.H., where they agreed to establish the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The US hosted an international conference at Bretton Woods, N.H., to deal with international monetary and financial problems. The talks resulted in the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in 1945. The Bretton Woods institutions also include the United Nations and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, later renamed the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Jul 4, The Japanese made their first kamikaze (god wind) attack on a US fleet near Iwo Jima. There is little evidence that these hits were more than accidental collisions or last-minute decisions by pilots in doomed aircraft, of the kind likely to happen in intense sea-air battles

Jul 9, American forces secured Saipan as the last Japanese defenses fell during WW II.

Jul 18, U.S. troops capture Saint-Lo, France, ending the battle of the hedgerows.

Jul 20, A branch of the German resistance led by Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath the table where Hitler was standing at Hitler's Rastenburg headquarters in East Prussia that wounded but did not kill Hitler.

Jul 25, The Messerschmitt 262 became the 1st jet fighter used in combat.

Aug 23, German SS engineers began placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Adolf Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuhrer's order.

ug 25, Paris, occupied since June 1940, was liberated from German occupation by Free French Forces under General Jacques LeClerc and his 2nd Tank division. Although ordered by Adolf Hitler to leave Paris a smoldering ruin, Paris' military governor Major General Dietrich von Cholitz lied to his superiors and left the city's landmarks intact.

Sep 4, British troops liberated Antwerp, Belgium.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

Sep 8, Germany's V-2 offensive against England began. The 1st V-2 rockets landed in London & Antwerp.

Sep 11, President Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill met in Canada at the second Quebec Conference.

Sep 12, The second Quebec Conference opened with President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in attendance.

Oct 13, The US 1st army entered Aachen, Germany.

Oct 20, Gen. Douglas MacArthur stepped ashore on A-Day (attack day) at Leyte in the Philippines, 2 1/2 years after he'd said, "I shall return."

Oct 28, The last Nazi transport of Jews to the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau was sent from Theresienstadt.

Dec 2, General Patton’s troops entered the Saar Valley and broke through the Siegfried line. US 95th Infantry division occupied bridge at Saar.

Dec 16, The Germans mounted a major surprise counterattack in the Ardennes Forest in Belgium. As the center of the Allied line fell back, it created a bulge, leading to the name--the Battle of the Bulge. Hitler hoped to cripple the advance Allies by breaking through their lines to destroy fuel supplies and lines of communication. The striking force (the Fifth and Sixth Panzer Armies) amounted to 24 divisions, 10 of them armored. The German attack achieved total surprise, but slowed by the end of December due to German supply problems and Allied resistance. Between January 8-16, in the face of a fierce Allied counteroffensive, the Germans finally withdrew. By January 21, the Germans had been pushed back to their original line, having lost some 120,000 men in the offensive. The Allies suffered 81,000 casualties including some 19,000 Americans killed.

Dec 20, In the Battle of Bastogne the Nazis surrounded 101st Airborne.

Dec 27, General Patton’s Third Army, spearheaded by the 4th Armored Division, relieved the surrounded city of Bastogne in Belgium.


1945       

Jan 27, The Soviet army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium. It is now believed that 1 million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet POWs.

Feb 4-12, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin held a wartime conference at Yalta, in the southern Ukraine. Roosevelt joked to Stalin that the only concession he might give to Ibn Saud in Saudi Arabia was "the 6 million Jews in the US."

Feb 13, Allied planes began bombing the German city of Dresden. British bombers in Operation Thunderclap firebombed the city of Dresden, Germany, and 135,000 people were killed. The Royal Air Force Bomber Command attacked the city of Dresden at night with raids by 873 heavy bombers. 796 Lancaster heavy bombers were led by 9 target marking Mosquito light bombers.

Feb 18, U.S. Marines stormed ashore at Iwo Jima. Navajo code talkers used their native language to communicate by radio on Japanese troop movements.

Feb 23, During World War II, U.S. Marines on Iwo Jima captured Mount Suribachi, where they raised the American flag.

Mar 10, Some 300 American B-29s bombed Tokyo at night with almost 2,000 tons of incendiaries killing 100,000.

Mar 26, Japanese resistance ended on Iwo Jima.

Mar 31, The U.S. and Britain barred a Soviet supported provisional regime in Warsaw from entering the U.N. meeting in San Francisco.

Apr 1, Easter Sunday, the American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 army and marine soldiers. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead. Japanese civilian casualties are estimated at 100-200 thousand killed.

Apr 3, Nazis began evacuation of camp Buchenwald.

Apr 11, The Americans liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. Some 250,000 prisoners passed through the camp and 50,000 are known to have died there.

Apr 12, Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt the 32nd president of the United States, died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Ga., at age 63.

Apr 12, Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.

Apr 15, British and Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen. It is a village in west Germany about 30 miles north of Hanover. About 40,000 people were liberated from the camp, although about 13,000 later died of illness. Overall, about 70,000 people died in Belsen.

Apr 16, In his first speech to Congress, President Truman pledged to carry out the war and peace policies of his predecessor, President Roosevelt.

Apr 21, Russian army arrived at outskirts of Berlin.

Apr 25, Delegates from some 50 countries met in San Francisco to organize the United Nations.

Apr 28, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, were executed by Italian partisans as they attempted to flee the country.

Apr 29, American soldiers liberated 31,601 in the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp

Apr 30, Red Army opened an attack on German Reichstag building in Berlin.

Apr 30, Adolf Hitler (56) committed suicide along with his wife of one day, Eva Braun (33), in his Fuhrerbunker as Russian troops approached Berlin. Karl Donitz became his successor.

May 2, The Soviet Union announced the fall of Berlin and the Allies announced the surrender of Nazi troops in Italy and parts of Austria.

May 7, Germany signed an unconditional surrender at Allied headquarters in Rheims, France, to take effect the following day, ending the European conflict of World War II. After five years, World War II in Europe ended when Colonel General Alfred Jodl, the last chief of staff of the German Army, signed the unconditional surrender at General Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Rheims, France.

May 9, Norwegian Nazi collaborator Vidkun Quisling was arrested.

May 9, Soviet citizens celebrated their WW II victory in Europe at Red Square. This became an annual holiday to commemorate the 27 million Soviet citizens who died in the war.

May 23,  Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, committed suicide while imprisoned in Luneburg, Germany.

May 26, US dropped fire bombs on Tokyo.

Jun 4, US, Russia, England & France agreed to split occupied Germany.

Jun 14, Burma was liberated by the British.

Jun 21, Japanese forces on Okinawa surrendered to the Americans

Jun 26, The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO) was held in San Francisco. Officials gathered to draft a UN Charter, and 50 countries signed the Charter on this date at what is now the Herbst Theater. This signifies the birth of the UN.

Jun, During this time, General Curtis LeMay had been firebombing Japanese cities daily, dropping napalm-filled bombs. In one three-day period, Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka had been destroyed.

Jul 5, Labour Party won British parliamentary election.

Jul 16, The first US test explosion of the atomic bomb was made at Alamogordo Air Base, south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, equal to some twenty thousand tons of TNT. The bomb was called the Gadget and the experiment was called Trinity

Jul 17-1945 Aug 2, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill (and his successor Clement Atlee) began meeting at the Schloss Cecilienhof in Potsdam in the final Allied summit of World War II. It re-established the European borders that were in effect as of Dec 31, 1937

Aug 2, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee concluded the Potsdam conference.

Aug 6, Hiroshima, Japan, was struck with the uranium bomb, Little Boy, from the B-29 airplane, Enola Gay, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets (1915-2007) of the US Air Force along with 11 other men. It killed an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare

Aug 8, President Truman signed the United Nations Charter.

Aug 8, The Soviet Union declared war against Japan. 1.5 million Soviet troops launched a massive surprise attack (August Storm) against Japanese occupation forces in northern China and Korea. Within days, Tokyo's million-man army in the region had collapsed in one of the greatest military defeats in history.

Aug 9, The 10,000 lb. plutonium bomb, Fat Man, was dropped over Nagasaki after the primary objective of Kokura was passed due to visibility problems. It killed an estimated 74,000 people.

Aug 10, Japan announced its willingness to surrender to Allies provided that the status of Emperor Hirohito remains unchanged

Aug 14, President Truman announced that Japan had surrendered unconditionally, ending World War II.

Aug 15, Emperor Hirohito announced to his subjects in a pre-recorded radio address that Japan had accepted terms of surrender for ending World War II. This day was proclaimed "V-J Day" by the Allies, a day after Japan agreed to surrender unconditionally.

Aug 27, American troops began landing in Japan following the surrender of the Japanese government in World War II.

Aug 29, Gen MacArthur was named the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan.

Sep 2, The Japanese surrender delegation boarded the USS Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay to formally sign documents of surrender, ending World War II.

Sep 2, Ho Chi Minh (55) promulgated the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence and unity from the north to the south. He was known to have written letters to President Truman asking for humanitarian assistance and advocated political rather than military action. His letters went unanswered.

Sep 8, Korea was partitioned by the Soviet Union and the United States. The US invaded Japanese-held Korea.

Oct 11, Negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung broke down. Nationalist and Communist troops we soon engaged in a civil war.

Oct 18, The first German War Crimes Trial began in 1945. The International Military Tribunal met at Nuremberg and lasted through to 1946. Ranking Nazi officials were tried and convicted of war crimes, crimes against peace and crimes against humanity.

Dec 7, The microwave oven was patented. Percy Spencer accidentally discovered that microwaves would also heat food.

-Russian code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada and Elizabeth Bentley changed her role from Soviet courier to FBI informant. They helped the West gain an understanding of Soviet spy rings in North America


1946       


Jan 6, Ho Chi Minh won North Vietnamese elections.

Jan 17, The United Nations Security Council held its first meeting.

Feb 9, Stalin announced the new five-year plan for the USSR, calling for production boosts of 50 percent.

Feb 15, The ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, had its official unveiling. It was created by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert. The first test problem it solved was concerned with the trajectory of a 155-millimeter shell. The problem was programmed by Jean Bartik and Betty Holberton who were part of an all-woman team that had performed the calculations by hand. The US Army had chosen 6 women, including Frances Holberton (d.2001 at 84), to program Eniac

Feb 24, Argentinians went to the polls to elect Juan D. Peron (50) their president. He held the office until 1955.

Mar 5, Winston Churchill appeared as Pres. Truman’s guest at Westminster College in Fulton, Mo. and delivered his "Sinews Of Peace" speech later known as the "Iron Curtain Speech:" "

Mar 15, British premier Attlee agreed with India's right to independence.

Apr 12, Syria gained independence from France.

Apr 28, Allies indicted Hideki Tojo, former premier and war minister of Japan, with 55 counts of war crimes.

Apr, In Japan the Tokyo War Crimes Trial began. Gen’l. Matsui Iwane, one of the military leaders of the 1937 "Rape of Nanking" was convicted and hung.

July 4, A postwar pogrom in Kielce, Poland, left 42 people, mostly Jews, dead and 50 wounded.

Jul 5, The bikini bathing suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut during a fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris.

Jul 22, Jewish extremists, that included Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which housed British administrative offices. 90-92 people were killed and included Britons (28), Arabs and Jews.

Sep 2, Nehru formed a government in India.

Sep 30, An international military tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, found 22 top Nazi leaders guilty of war crimes. Ribbentrop and Goering were sentenced to death.

Oct 28, German rocket engineers began work in the USSR.

Dec 20, Viet Minh and French forces fought fiercely in the Annamite section of Hanoi in Vietnam .

Dec 26, The Flamingo Casino opened. Billy Wilkerson designed the Flamingo and sold a controlling interest to Bugsy Siegel when his money ran out. It was the 3rd hotel casino built on the Las Vegas strip.

-A dissenting Mormon sect from Utah set up a community practicing polygamy in Bountiful, BC, Canada

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