Jan 2, us secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its




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1947       


Jan 2, Mahatma Gandhi began a march for peace in East-Bengali.

Feb 2, The US and Canada announced the continuation of their defense-cooperation under the Permanent Defense Board of 1940.

Mar 12, Pres. Truman outlined the Truman Doctrine of economic and military aid to nations threatened by Communism. The doctrine was intended to speed recovery of Mediterranean countries He specifically requested aid for Greece and Turkey to resist Communism.

May 31, Communists grabbed power in Hungary.

Jun 3, In Britain an announcement was made in the House of Commons that India was to be partitioned and that independence would follow.

Aug 14, Britain partitioned the subcontinent and Pakistan was founded as an independent country. The Muslim areas in the east and west became independent Pakistan with Mohammed Ali Jinnah as president.

Aug 15, India gained independence after some 200 years of British rule. Britain partitioned the subcontinent.. Although most of the people of Kashmir were Muslim, the maharaja was Hindu and he appealed to India for help. Independence in Pakistan and India led to bloody conflicts and thousands died.

Oct 20, The House Un-American Activities Committee re-convened in Washington and opened public hearings on alleged communist infiltration within the motion picture industry in Hollywood. Among those denounced as having un-American tendencies were: Katherine Hepburn, Charles Chaplin and Edward G. Robinson. Among those called to testify was Screen Actors Guild President Ronald Reagan, who denied that leftists ever controlled the Guild and refused to label anyone a communist.

Nov 2, Howard Hughes piloted his huge wooden airplane, known as the Spruce Goose, on its only flight, which lasted 70 sec. over Long Beach Harbor in California. The plane had an 8-story tail and a 320-foot wingspan. It was designed to take seven hundred soldiers into battle. The plane had a wing span longer than a football field, and was powered by 8 engines and was crafted out of 200 tons of plywood. The war ended before the plane was deployed, but Hughes proved the Spruce Goose's was air-worthy.

- “The Diary of Anne Frank” was first published. In her diary Anne Frank (1929-1945) chronicled the details of her teenage life hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam from 1942 to 1944, when the Nazi secret police discovered her and her family's hiding place.

-Bell Labs invented cellular phone technology.


1948


Jan 18, Ghandi broke a 121-hour fast after halting Moslem-Hindu riots.

Jan 30, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (78) was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a fellow Hindu while walking to a prayer meeting in New Delhi a few minutes after five o'clock in the evening.

Apr 15, Arabs were defeated in the first Jewish-Arab battle.

May 14, The British evacuated Israel. The independent state of Israel was proclaimed in Tel Aviv under Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion as British rule in Palestine came to an end. Ben-Gurion and 36 fellow members of the Provisional Council of State signed the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel.

May 15, Hours after declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon. The first president of the State of Israel, Chaim Weizmann, took office with the founding of the nation.


May 26, South Africa elected a nationalist government with apartheid policy. The National Party of the Dutch Afrikaners came to power and imposed apartheid.

Jun 3, Newfoundland and Labrador voted by a slim margin to relinquish status as a British colony and to become the 10th province of Canada.

Jun 19, USSR blocked access road to West Berlin.

Jun 24, Communist forces with 30 military divisions cut off all land and water routes between West Germany and West Berlin, prompting the United States to organize the massive Berlin airlift

Jun 26, The Berlin Airlift began in earnest as the United States, Britain and France started ferrying supplies to the isolated western sector of Berlin, after the Soviet Union cut off land and water routes. The Soviets had been harassing the French, British and American authorities in Berlin for weeks, trying to force them from the city. Finally, when all surface routes to the city were blockaded, it became clear that an airlift through the Allied sectors was the only way to re-supply the 2 million West Berliners. In spite of the enormous human and financial cost, “Operation Vittles” supplied food, fuel and hope to beleaguered citizens until the Soviet barricades were finally lifted on

Oct 14, Large scale fighting took place between Israel and Egypt.

Oct 28, Flag of Israel was adopted.

Nov 3, The Chicago Tribune printed the headline "Dewey defeats Truman." Later votes threw the election in the opposite direction.

-n Russia Stalin began anti-Jewish purges. Jewish activities were put on par with criminal activities.


1949       


Jan 1, The UN brokered a cease-fire in Kashmir. It granted Kashmir the right to vote on whether to remain in India or to join Pakistan. No vote took place.

Jan 11, Surrender talks in China between the Nationalists and Communists opened as Tientsing was virtually lost to the Communists.

Feb 1, RCA Victor countered Columbia Records’ 33-1/3 ‘long play’ phonograph disk on this day.

Feb 14, 1st session of Knesset (Jerusalem Israel).

Feb 24, Israel and Egypt signed an armistice agreement.

Mar 15, Almost four years after the end of World War II, clothes rationing in Great Britain ends.

Mar 31, Newfoundland, later called Newfoundland and Labrador, entered confederation as Canada's 10th province.

Mar, Some 20,000 Estonian civilians were rounded up and deported to Siberia under orders from Joseph Stalin.

Apr 4, The (NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for mutual defense against aggression and for close military cooperation.

Apr 18, The Republic of Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth and was officially proclaimed in Dublin on the anniversary of the 1916 Easter rebellion. King George VI sent his good wishes.

Apr 23, The Chinese Red army entered and occupied Nanjing.

May 11, Israel was admitted to the United Nations as the world body's 59th member by a vote of 37-12. The capital was moved to Tel Aviv.

May 15, In Hungary a general election with open voting gave complete victory to the Communist controlled National Independence Front. They purged their opponents, proclaimed a new constitution, nationalized all major industries, and announced a five-year plan.

May 25, Chinese Red army occupied Shanghai.

Jun 29, The government of South Africa enacted a ban against racially mixed marriages.

Jul 20, Israel's 19 month war of independence ended with a ceasefire agreement with Syria.

Jul 29, Airlift in West-Germany to West-Berlin ended.

Aug 29, The USSR successfully detonated its first atomic bomb at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan. It was a copy of the Fat Man bomb and had a yield of 21 kilotons.

Sep 6, Howard Unruh (28) killed 13 neighbors in 12 minutes in Camden, New Jersey. The dead included 5 men, 5 women and 3 children. Unruh (1921-2009) was eventually pronounced insane and spent the rest of his life in a state psychiatric hospital.

Sep 17, The North Atlantic Treaty Council (NATO) met for the 1st time.

Sep 21, The Communist People’s Republic of China was proclaimed under Mao Tse Tung with Chou En-Lai as Premier. "Today, the Chinese people have stood up." Mao-Tse-Tung led his people to power after half a century (50 yrs.) of civil strife. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek to Formosa.

Sep 27, The USSR repudiated its 1945 treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia.

Sep 30, The Berlin airlift ended its operation after 277,264 flights. Through accidents 31 Americans lost their lives in support of the airlift. The Berlin Airlift, which began on June 26, 1948, and lasted 321 days, consisted of 272,264 flights by British and American airmen. They transported some 2.3 million tons of food to supply the 2.1 million residents of the blockaded portion of the city. The operation ended after 278,288 flights and delivery of 2,326,406 tons of supplies.

Oct 1, Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) raised the first flag of the People's Republic of China during a ceremony in Beijing  (National Day).

Oct 1, Republic of China (Taiwan) was formed on island of Formosa. The Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek had been defeated and fled to Taiwan and took control. Chiang Kai-shek established the "temporary" government of the Republic of China in Taipei and established martial law.

Oct 2, USSR recognized the People's Republic of China.

Oct 7, The German Democratic Republic of East Germany was established.

Nov 26, India adopted a constitution as a republic within the British Commonwealth. Pandit Nehru became Prime Minister.


1950       


Jan 6, Britain recognized the Communist government of China.

Jan 21, Former State Department official Alger Hiss, accused of being part of a Communist spy ring, was found guilty in New York of lying to a grand jury. Hiss, who always maintained his innocence, was sentenced to five years in prison; he served less than four.

Mar 2, Silly Putty was introduced to the public.

May 21, French sources reported that Viet Minh guerrillas had infiltrated Cambodia and opened an arms-smuggling corridor to Thailand.

Jun 25, The Korean War started as forces from the communist North invaded the South. The Chinese entered the war and the UN forces were pushed into a Christmas retreat. 2.5 million people were killed. No peace treaty was ever signed. About 1.7 million Americans were involved and there was an estimated 3 mil casualties including 150,000 (54,246) Americans and over 1 mil Chinese. 

Jun 27, North Koreans troop reached Seoul. UN Security Council called on members for troops to aid South Korea.
Sep 26, Because of forest fire in British Columbia a blue moon appeared in England.

Sep 30, U.N. forces crossed the 38th parallel separating North and South Korea as they pursued the retreating North Korean Army.

Oct 7, The United Nations General Assembly approved an advance by UN forces north of the 38th Parallel in the Korean Conflict.

Oct 14, Chinese Communist Forces began to infiltrate the North Korean Army.

Oct 21, Chinese forces occupied Tibet.

Oct 25, Chinese Communist Forces launched their first phase offensive across the Yalu River into North Korea.

Nov 26, China entered the Korean conflict, launching a counter-offensive across the Yalu River against soldiers from the United Nations, the United States and South Korea. North Korean and Chinese troops halted the UN offensive.

Nov 28, In Korea, 200,000 Communist troops launched attack on UN forces.

Dec 28, Chinese troops crossed the 38th Parallel into South Korea.

Thor Heyerdahl published "Kon-Tiki." He had led a six-man expedition that sailed from Peru aboard a balsa wood raft named the Kon-Tiki on a 101-day journey across the Pacific Ocean to Polynesia

-German physicist and engineer Wernher von Braun and a team of some 118 German scientists, described as “prisoners of peace,” began arriving in Huntsville, Alabama, to work on the US space program at Redstone Arsenal.

-In Canada there was a major flood on the Red River that forced 25% of the residents of Winnipeg, Manitoba, from their homes.


1951        



Jan 17, China refused a cease-fire in Korea.

Mar 13, Israel demanded DM 6.2 billion ($1.5 billion) in German reparations for the cost of caring for war refugees.

Mar 24, MacArthur threatened the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the proposed truce was not accepted.

Mar 29, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. They were executed in June 1953.

Apr 1, U.N. forces again crossed the 38th Parallel in Korea.

Apr 11, President Truman relieved Gen. Douglas MacArthur of his commands in the Far East. President Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur.

May 27, Chinese Communists forced the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing.

Jun 14, UNIVAC, the first computer built for commercial purposes, was demonstrated in Philadelphia by Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, Jr.

Jun 25, The first commercial color telecast took place as CBS transmitted a one-hour special from New York to four other cities. CBS tried a version of color TV with a design that featured a mechanical rotating color wheel.

Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.

Jul 10, Armistice talks aimed at ending the Korean conflict began at Kaesong.

Jul 12, A mob tried to keep a black family from moving into all-white Cicero, Ill.

Sep 1, PM Ben-Gurion ordered the establishment of Mossad, the Israeli secret service.

Nov 27, Cease-fire and demarcation zone accord was signed in Panmunjom, Korea.

Dec 13, After meeting with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, President Harry S. Truman vowed to purge all disloyal government workers.

-Back-yard shelters against the A-bomb began to proliferate.


1952       


Feb 8, Elizabeth was formally proclaimed Queen of England following the Feb 6 death of her father, King George VI. Elizabeth was crowned Jun 2, 1953.

Apr 21, BOAC began 1st passenger service with jets from London to Rome.

May 1, Mr. Potato Head was introduced.

May 1, TWA introduced tourist class.

Sep 6, Canadian television broadcasting began in Montreal.

Aug, Mad Magazine, cover dated for October, came out with its first issue.

Nov 1, The United States exploded the first hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Ivy Mike," in a test at Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands.

Nov 4, Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike) was elected president the 34th president, defeating Democrat Adlai Stevenson in presidential elections.

Nov 10, U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision barring segregation on interstate rail-ways.

-Kraft Foods introduced Cheese Whiz.


1953       


Jan, In Russia leaders of the alleged Jewish "Doctor’s Plot" were arrested. They were accused of conspiring to murder the Soviet leadership.

Feb 28, Francis Crick (d.2004) and James Watson discovered the structure of DNA-molecule. Watson and Crick managed to describe the structure of DNA as a double helix consisting of two long strings coiled around one another.

Mar 5, Russian Premier Joseph Stalin died at age 73 after 29 years in power. After his death the Chechens were allowed to return home.

Mar 20, In the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev became the head of a five-man group called the Secretariat, although for all intents and purposes, he is in a leadership role that will gradually push Malenkov aside. In September Khrushchev was officially given the title of First Secretary of the Communist Party.

Mar 26, Dr. Jonas Salk of the University of Pittsburgh announced that a vaccine against polio had been successfully tested in a small group of adults and children.

Apr 7, The U.N. General Assembly elected Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-1961) as Secretary-General of the UN.

May 29, Mount Everest was conquered as Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tensing Norgay, A Sherpa of Nepal, became the first climbers to reach the summit.

/Jun 4, North Koreans accepted U.N. proposals in all major respects.

Jun 18, Egypt was declared a republic, and the monarchy was abolished

Jun 26, Lavrenti Beria, Russian vice-premier, interior minister, intelligence chief, was arrested.

Jul 4, Imre Nagy succeeded Matyas Rkosi as premier of Hungary.

Jul 10, Pravda reported that Lavrenti P. Beria, Stalin's ruthless chief of intelligence and member of the Soviet Presidium (1899-1953), had been ousted and arrested.

Jul 27,    An armistice ending fighting in the three-year Korean War was signed by representatives of the United Nations, Korea and China in Panmunjom.

Sep 13, Nikita Khrushchev (b.1894) was elected First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee.

Dec 30, The first color TV sets went on sale. An Admiral color set was priced about $1,175 in 1953 dollars!

Dec, Swanson and Sons introduced the TV Dinner. The turkey, sweet potatoes and peas package was priced at 98 cents and could be cooked in 25 minutes.

-Alfred Kinsey published "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female," the 1st major US survey on women's sexual habits. He found that attitudes did not match behavior.

-Pres. Eisenhower issued an executive order that required the dismissal of all homosexual employees in the government.

-Frank Olson, US Army chemist, jumped to his death from a hotel window while under the influence of LSD. He was an unwitting subject in the CIA MKULTRA mind-control project.

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