What would you do if this world co-existed with robots? One day this may come become a reality from what I have read. Mankind has evolved in technology and can




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Artificial Intelligence




What would you do if this world co-existed with robots? One day this may come become a reality from what I have read. Mankind has evolved in technology and can make it most likely happen to have robots co- exist with us. This world has gone from having telegrams, landline phones, pagers to cell phones, video chat and etc. Many cell phones are small enough to put in our pockets.

The play called “Rossum’s Universal Robotnik” in 1921 was written by Karek Capek . The term for “Robot” came from the Czech term ‘Robota” which means work or forced labor. In the play the robots had lots of strength but had no weakness that human beings had. Robots were made to go to war, but they turned against man-kind who created them.

Robots are used today in factories to build cars and warehouses to build products sold in this economy like electronics. Robots can be used to explore caves and places humans cannot go to or never will want to. Some robotics is sent into space to explore the Milky Way, planets and galaxies. Many companies use robotics to manufacture consumer products easily in huge quantities. Robotics is also used to put in microchips in cars and computers for communication devices.

Some hospitals are using robots to perform surgeries now days. The doctors will use the robots to perform the surgeries where they are unable to get to and it needs accuracy. Robots can do many good things in this world. They give us advantages of not having to do many physical things. Robots do jobs that can be very harmful to humans. Many bomb squads and military use robots to dismantle bobs and move it to a safe location to explode. Many robots can tend to malfunction at times that can cause injury or death. But it does not happen very often.

Robotics has certain laws to follow. Artificial Intelligence must follow the three laws. Law number one: is that a robot cannot harm humans or let humans be harmed. Law number two: Is that they must at all times obey the commands given to it by humans unless it would contradict with the first law. Law number three: Robots must protect its own kind except if it induces problems with the first and second laws.

Technology is in the world of robotics. Japan is one of the leading countries in the robotics world. The United States uses robotics less than Japan. Robots will play an important part in our world in the near future when man-kind is in danger they will be long-lasting helping

this world in need.

With the help with a robot we can benefit, because of the number of fixed systems and networks increasing in this world. Communicating with robots is not fully developed or understood just yet. The existence of networked fixed systems and the number of networks that are increasing in numbers in housing and businesses would definitely benefit from the help of a robot. The communication between humans and these artificial beings is not yet fully developed or understood. Not being able to communicate with robots it is slowing the progress down for consumer use.


Today robots are being used for various reasons. They help in places that we as humans could or would not ordinarily be able to go. Say for instance a child gets lost and fall down a hole. The problem is the hole is too small for an adult to fit into but big enough for a machine or robot to fit through so that retrieval of the child is less stressful and doesn’t cause any harm to you or the child.

Robotics has developed with improvements over the years. They are attained mostly for the military and some industrial businesses. Funding for robotics can be very expensive for the military to build robots to go out to get the bombs that can explode. There are studies that show the use of some robotics for people who work around hazardous chemicals. Robotics was built to keep human counter parts safe.

There are still some problems to create robotics for consumers, but there are still some problems that need to be worked out. Having the idea to have robotics thinking and distinguishing itself will make robotics think freely and it will be from networks. With having any thought of A.I exceeding intelligence would be something in movies.

The word for robot is related to the word from work to worker. The most popular personal robot that was on the market was Hero that was manufactured by Healthkit. It looked like a plastic step stool on wheels; Hero was designed to lift objects by an mechanical clawed arm.

Then there was Hubot which was a computer screen for an face that flashed lights and had an keyboard built in the stomach. Hubot could function as a burglar alarm and an alarm clock as well, it moved at an rate of 30cm per second.

Several years ago, a pet robot named wires was sold at the department store called Neim an- Marcus. If you look at all the robots listed they were really just super toys. Many people dream of having metal robots to become our personal maid like the cartoon The Jetsons. They dream of them to be functions with all the equipment to clean a house. There was an early attempt of creating a robot called Shakey, it was called that because the legs wobbled on its feet. But today Shakey is just rusting in a corner in a California laboratory.

I would like to share a time line of robotics:

~ 350 B.C

The brilliant Greek mathematician, Archytas ('ahr 'ky tuhs') of Tarentum builds a mechanical bird dubbed "the Pigeon" that is propelled by steam. It serves as one of histories earliest studies of flight, not to mention probably the first model airplane.

~ 322 B.C.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle writes...

“If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it... then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords.” ...hinting how nice it would be to have a few robots around.

~ 200 B.C.

The Greek inventor and physicist Ctesibus ('ti sib ee uhs') of Alexandria designs water clocks that have movable figures on them. Water clocks are a big breakthrough for timepieces. Up until then the Greeks used hour glasses that had to be turned over after all the sand ran through. Ctesibus' invention changed this because it measured time as a result of the force of water falling through it at a constant rate. In general, the Greeks were fascinated with automata of all kinds often using them in theater productions and religious ceremonies.

1495

Leonardo DaVinci designs a mechanical device that looks like an armored knight. The mechanisms inside "Leonardo's robot" are designed to make the knight move as if there was a real person inside. Inventors in medieval times often built machines like "Leonardo's robot" to amuse royalty.

1738

Jacques de Vaucanson begins building automata in Grenoble, France. He builds three in all. His first was the flute player that could play twelve songs. This was closely followed by his second automaton that played a flute and a drum or tambourine, but by far his third was the most famous of them all. The duck was an example of Vaucanson's attempt at what he called "moving anatomy", or modeling human or animal anatomy with mechanics." The duck moved, quacked, flapped it's wings and even ate and digested food.

1770

Swiss clock makers and inventors of the modern wristwatch Pierre Jaquet-Droz and later joined by his son Henri-Louis Jaquet-Droz start making automata for European royalty. They create three dolls, each with a unique function. One can write, another plays music, and the third draws pictures.

1801

Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled with punched cards. Punch cards are later used as an input method for some of the 20th centuries earliest computers.

1822

Charles Babbage demonstrates a prototype of his "Difference Engine" to the Royal Astronomical Society. He continues his work by designing an even more ambitious project "the Analytical Engine" that reportedly was to use punch cards inspired by Joseph Jacquard's invention. During his lifetime he never produces a functional version of either machine. Despite this shortcoming he is often heralded as the "Father of the Computer" and his work lives on as the foundation for the binary numbering system that is the basis of modern computers.

1847

George Boole represents logic in mathematical form with his Boolean Algebra.

1898

Nikola Tesla builds and demonstrates a remote controlled robot boat at Madison Square Garden.

1921

Czech writer Karel Capek introduced the word "Robot" in his play "R.U.R" (Rossuum's Universal Robots). "Robot" in Czech comes from the word "robota", meaning "compulsory labor"

1926

Fritz Lang's movie "Metropolis" is released. "Maria" the female robot in the film is the first robot to be projected on the silver screen.

1936

Alan Turing introduces the concept of a theoretical computer called the Turing Machine. Despite being a fundamental advance in computer logic it also spawns new schools in Mathematics.

1940

Issac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots starting with "A Strange Playfellow" (later renamed "Robbie") for Super Science Stories magazine. The story is about a robot and its affection for a child that it is bound to protect. Over the next 10 years he produces more stories about robots that are eventually recompiled into the volume "I, Robot" in 1950.

Asimov is generally credited with the popularization of the term "Robotics" which was first mentioned in his story "Runaround" in 1942. But probably Issac Asimov's most important contribution to the history of the robot is the creation of his Three Laws of Robotics:

A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.


A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Asimov later adds a "zeroth law" to the list:

Zeroth law: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

1946

George Devol patents a playback device for controlling machines.

1950

Alan Turing publishes Computing Machinery and Intelligence in which he proposes a test to determine whether or not a machine has gained the power to think for itself. It becomes known as the "Turing Test".

1951

The Day the Earth Stood Still premieres in theaters. The movie features an alien named Klaatu and his robot Gort.

1956

Alan Newell and Herbert Simon create the Logic Theorist, the first "expert system". It is used to help solve difficult math problems.

1956

Aided by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nat Rochester and Claude Shannon organize The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence at Dartmouth College. The term "artificial intelligence" is coined as a result of this conference.

1959

John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky start the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

1961

Heinrich Ernst develops the MH-1, a computer operated mechanical hand at MIT.

1962

The first industrial arm robot - the Unimate - is introduced. It is designed to complete repetitive or dangerous tasks on a General Motors assembly line.

1963

John McCarthy leaves MIT to start the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Stanford University.

1966

The Stanford Research Institute (later to be known as SRI Technology) creates Shakey the first mobile robot to know and react to its own actions. Amongst other achievements SRI was also the research institute that helped bring us modern day laundry detergent in the development of Tide.

1966

An artificial intelligence program named ELIZA is created at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum. ELIZA functions as a computer psychologist that manipulates its users statements to form questions. Weizenbaum is disturbed at how quickly people put faith in his little program.

1967

Richard Greenblatt writes, MacHack, a program that plays chess, in response to a recent article written by Hurbert Dreyfus where he suggests, as a critique to efforts in artificial intelligence, that a computer program could never beat him in a game of chess. When the program is finished and Dreyfus is invited to play the computer he leads for most of the game but ultimately loses in the end in a close match. Greenblatt's program would be the foundation for many future chess programs, ultimately culminating in Big Blue the chess program that beats chess Grand Master Gary Kasparov.


1968

Stanley Kubrick makes Arthur C. Clark's, 2001: A Space Odyssey into a movie. It features HAL, an onboard computer that decides it doesn't need its human counterparts any longer. Hear HAL by clicking here.

1969

Victor Scheinman, a Mechanical Engineering student working in the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL) creates the Stanford Arm. The arm's design becomes a standard and is still influencing the design of robot arms today.

1970

Stanford University produces the Stanford Cart. It is designed to be a line follower but can also be controlled from a computer via radio link.

1971

The film Silent Running is released starring Bruce Dern. Bruce's co-stars are three robot drones Huey, Dewey and Louie.

1974

Victor Scheinman forms his own company and starts marketing the Silver Arm. It is capable of assembling small parts together using touch sensors.

1976

Shigeo Hirose designs the Soft Gripper at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. It is designed to wrap around an object in snake like fashion.

1979

The Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University is established. The Stanford Cart is rebuilt by Hans Morava. He adds a more robust vision system allowing greater autonomy. These are some of the first experiments with 3D environment mapping.

1980

Seymour Papert publishes Mind storms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas where he advocates constructionism, or learning through doing.

1981

Takeo Kanade builds the direct drive arm. It is the first to have motors installed directly into the joints of the arm. This change makes it faster and much more accurate than previous robotic arms.

1982

"A new life awaits you on the Off-World colonies." Blade Runner is released. This Ridley Scott film is based on the Philip K. Dick story "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" and starred Harrison Ford as Rick Deckard a retired Blade Runner that hunted Replicates (or illegal mutinous androids).

1986

LEGO and the MIT Media Lab collaborate to bring the first LEGO based educational products to market. LEGO Tc Logo is used by in the classrooms of thousands of elementary school teachers.

Honda begins a robot research program that’s starts with the premise that the robot "should coexist and cooperate with human beings, by doing what a person cannot do and by cultivating a new dimension in mobility to ultimately benefit society."

1989

A walking robot named Genghis is unveiled by the Mobile Robots Group at MIT. It becomes known for the way it walks, popularly referred to as the "Genghis gait". At MIT Rodney Brooks and A. M. Flynn publish the paper "Fast, Cheap and Out of Control: A Robot Invasion of the Solar System" in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. The paper changes rover research from building the one, big, expensive robot to building lots of little cheap ones. The paper also makes the idea of building a robot somewhat more accessible to the average person. Dr. Seymour Papert becomes the LEGO Professor of Learning Research.

1992

In an attempt to build a radio controlled vacuum cleaner Marc Thorpe has the idea to start a robot combat event. Dr. John Adler came up with the concept of the Cyber Knife a robot that images the patient with x-rays to look for a tumor and delivering a pre-planned dose of radiation to the tumor when found.

1993

Dante an 8-legged walking robot developed at Carnegie Mellon University descends into Mt. Erebrus, Antarctica. Its mission is to collect data from a harsh environment similar to what we might find on another planet. The mission fails when, after a short 20 foot decent, Dante's tether snaps dropping it into the crater.


1994

Dante II, a more robust version of its predecessor, descends into the crater of Alaskan volcano Mt. Spur. The mission is considered a success. Marc Thorpe starts Robot Wars at Fort Mason center in San Francisco, CA.

1995

The second annual Robot Wars event is held at Fort Mason Center, San Francisco, CA.

1996

A Robot Tuna is designed and built by David Barrett for his doctoral thesis at MIT. It is used to study the way fish swim.

Chris Campbell and Stuart Wilkinson turn a brewing accident into inspiration at the University of South Florida. The result is the Gastrobot, a robot that digests organic mass to produce carbon dioxide that is then used for power. They call their creation the "flatulence engine." Honda debuts the P3, the fruit of its decade long effort to build a humanoid robot. The third annual Robot Wars event is held at Fort Mason Center, San Francisco, CA.

1997

The first node of the International Space Station is placed in orbit. Over the next several years more components will join it, including a robotic arm designed by Canadian company MD Robotics. The Pathfinder Mission lands on Mars. Its robotic rover Sojourner rolls down a ramp and onto Martian soil in early July. It continues to broadcast data from the Martian surface until September.

1998

Tiger Electronics introduces the Furby into the Christmas toy market. It quickly becomes "the toy" to get for the season. Using a variety of sensors this "animatronic pet" can react to its environment and communicate using over 800 phrases in English and their own language "Furbish". LEGO releases their first Robotics Invention SystemTM 1.0. LEGO names the product line MINDSTORMS after Seymour Papert's seminal work of 1980.

1999

LEGO releases The Robotics Discovery Set, Droid Developer Kit and the Robotics Invention System 1.5. SONY releases the AIBO robotic pet.

2000

Honda debuts new humanoid robot ASIMO. The Battlebots event is held in Las Vegas, Nevada. LEGO releases the MINDSTORMS Robotics Invention SystemTM 2.0

2001

LEGO releases the MINDSTORMS Ultimate Builder's Set In August, the FDA clears the CyberKnife to treat tumors anywhere in the body.

2002

Honda's ASIMO robot rings the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange.

2003

June 10th - NASA launches the MER-A "Spirit" rover destined for Mars.

July 7th - NASA launches the MER-B "Opportunity". SONY releases the AIBO ERS-7 it's 3rd generation robotic pet.

2004

Jan. 4th - After six minutes of holding our breath (during EDL) as it burned and bounced its way to the red planet the robot rover Spirit lands on Mars. Jan. 23rd - The second Mars Exploration Rover - "Opportunity" safely lands on the Meridium Planum. (http://robotics.megagiant.com/history.html).

In conclusion I have come to realize that we as a human race have come a long way, especially when it comes to technology. Today we have machines and robots that help us in our everyday lives. For example we use our microwaves to cook food in a faster time than it would on a stove. Artificial Intelligence of Robotics serves us in many ways. But to actually co-exist with a mechanical being, even with laws in place should only be kept as thoughts and ideas. We do not want to create something that is smarter than humans. Eventually they would realize that they are equal if not; superior to mankind. Can you really imagine a world were robots are walking around assisting with chores and other tasks we as humans perform on a day to day basis. Are we really ready to take this on?


References

Robotics; Robots for Maintenance and Safety Provides an In-Depth Analysis of the Market Drivers and Restraints, Industry Trends and Competitive Environment. (2011, February). Defense & Aerospace Business, 1312. Retrieved July 1 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2267628291).

Marketing and Licensing Agreements; New robot system to test 10,000 chemicals for toxicity. (2011, March). Journal of Robotics & Machine Learning,247. Retrieved July 1 2011, from ProQuest Computing. (Document ID: 2300835831).

Anonymous, Rise of machine thinking. (2011, February). New Scientist, 209(2800), 3. R Retrieved July 1 2011 from Research Library. (Document ID: 2294590051).

Brusso, C.. (2011, March). PING-PONG BOT. Science World, 67(11), 4. Retrieved July 1 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2291592651).

http://robotics.megagiant.com/history.html

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