Advanced ice vehicles: An assessment of the technologies for next generation vehicles




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Advanced ICE vehicles: An assessment of the technologies for next generation vehicles


Advanced Energy Pathways (AEP) Project

Task 4.1 Technology Assessments of Vehicle Fuels and Technologies

Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program

California Energy Commission

July 2007

Prepared by:

UC Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS-Davis)

One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616

Authors:

Wayne Leighty, Christopher Yang and Joan Ogden


1. Introduction 3

2. ICE Vehicle design considerations 4

2.1 Vehicle initial and operating costs 5

3. Advanced ICE technology evaluation 5

3.1 Advanced Spark Ignition Engines 6

3.1.1 Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) 6

3.1.2 Ethanol use in SI engine vehicles 8

3.2 Advanced Compression Ignition Engines 10

3.2.1 Emissions Control 10

3.2.1.1 SCR and NOx Adsorber 11

3.2.1.2 Particulate Filters 12

3.2.2 Biodiesel 14

3.2.3 HCCI 14

3.3 Gaseous Fuels 16

3.3.1 Liquid Petroleum Gas 16

3.3.2 Natural Gas 16

3.3.3 Hydrogen 17

3.4 Cross Cutting Vehicle Technologies 18

3.4.1 Drivetrain improvements 18

3.4.1.1 Hybrid drivetrain 18

3.4.1.2 Transmission 18

3.4.1.3 Idle start/stop and 42 V system 19

3.4.2 Engine improvements 19

3.4.2.1 Variable Valve Timing 19

3.4.2.2 Cylinder Deactivation 20

3.4.3 Other vehicle advances 20

3.4.3.1 Lightweight Materials 20

3.4.3.2 System Diagnostics 20

4. Advanced ICE vehicles 21

4.1 Summary of technologies 21

4.2 Vehicle evaluation 22

5. Market readiness considerations 27

5.1 Present markets and vehicle demonstrations 27

5.2 Vehicle performance 28

5.3 Projected initial vehicle costs 28

6. advanced ICE vehicles: Summary and conclusions 29

7. References 31


Abbreviations

ICE – Internal combustion engine

SI – Spark ignition

SIPI – Spark ignition port injection

SIDI – Spark ignition direct injection

CI – Compression ignition

CIDI – Compression ignition direct injection

HCCI – Homogenous charge compression ignition

NO - Nitrogen oxides

CVT – Continously variable transmission

EMAT - electro-mechanical automatic transmission

SCR – Selective catalytic reduction

CNG – Compressed natural gas

LPG – Liquefied petroleum gas

LNG – Liquified natural gas

FCV – Fuel cell vehicle

MTBE – Methyl-tert butyl ether

CAFE – Corporate average fuel economy

FFV – Flex fuel vehicle

SOx – Sulfur oxides

NOx – Nitrogen oxides

EPA – Environmental Protection Association

HC - Hydrocarbons

GHG – Greenhouse gas emissions

PM – Particulate matter

ULEV – Ultra low emission vehicles

DPF – Diesel particulate filter

LNT – Lean NOx trap

EGR – Exhaust gas recirculation

TRL – Technology readiness level

RPM – Revolutions per minute

IM – Inspection and monitoring

LNC – Lean NOx catalyst

VVT – Variable valve timing

HEV – Hybrid electric vehicle

EUCAR – European Union Council for Automotive Research and Development

1.Introduction


Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles comprise virtually all of the light- and heavy-duty vehicles in automotive history. The standard internal combustion engine vehicle is powered by either a gasoline-fueled spark ignition engine or a diesel-fueled compression ignition engine. These vehicles have provided drivers with a durable, powerful and affordable means of transportation. Over the past century, the longevity, power, fuel economy, and emissions of automobiles powered by the ICE have been improving, and engineers continue this progress. The historical rate of ICE efficiency improvement, for example, has been one to two percent per year, although historical trends in vehicle fuel economy do not track this relatively steady rate of engine efficiency improvement due to changes in other aspects of vehicle design.1, 2 The history of improvement in ICE performance for consumer desires such as power and driveability (a composite measure of response to driver input) has been driven by consumer preference as articulated through purchase decisions. The history of improvement in ICE performance for the social goals of reduced pollutant emissions and improved fuel economy, however, has been driven by government regulation.

The main goal of this report is to evaluate the environmental, performance, and cost characteristics for advanced IC engine/fuel combinations and to provide an assessment of their readiness for inclusion into commercial ICE vehicles. In this assessment, advanced IC engine/fuel systems are evaluated using multiple criteria.

  • Environmental considerations, including near-term local air pollution (e.g., ozone, PM, toxics), long term impacts (e.g., climate change, local and regional contamination or environmental degradation).

  • Vehicle attributes, including range, performance, and capital, operating and fuel costs.

  • Social considerations, including diversification away from fossil fuels, energy independence and supply stability, public safety, and public welfare.

An important point for the reader to understand is that each fuel/propulsion system generally presents some tradeoffs among these variables. The major focus of the document is to evaluate and highlight those advanced vehicle technologies that can help in meeting California’s goals for reductions in petroleum usage and criteria air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions.


Propulsion Systems

Fuels

Emissions Control

Other Technology

Spark Ignition (SI)

Port-Injection

(SIPI)


Direct-Injection

(SIDI)

Gasoline


Ethanol


Hydrogen


Liquid Petrol. Gas


Natural Gas

Particulate Filters


Lean NOx Adsorber & Catalyst

Hybrid Drivetrain


Variable Valve Timing


Cylinder Deactivation


Lightweight Materials


Idle stop/start systems


Transmissions

(CVT, EMAT)

Compression Ignition (CI)

Direct-Injection

(CIDI)


Homogeneous Charge (HCCI)

Diesel


Biodiesel


Liquid Petrol. Gas


Natural Gas

Particulate Filters


Lean NOx Adsorber & Catalyst


Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

Table 1: Vehicle propulsion, fuel, emissions control and other systems considered in this report. Emissions control systems written in grey may be used with SIDI engines; the “other technology” may be used with either spark ignition or compression ignition systems.


Several reports have been published over the past decade on advanced ICE vehicle systems. In particular,

  • the Massachusetts Institute of Technology published a study in 2000 titled “On the Road in 2020” and has issued several subsequent reports,Error: Reference source not found

  • the National Research Council published a study in 2002 on the “Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards,”Error: Reference source not found

  • the European Council for Automotive R&D and CONCAWE published a report in 2007 on a “Well-to-Wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context,”Error: Reference source not found and

  • Kasseris and Heywood from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan Automotive Lab published a report in 2007 titled “Comparative Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Choices for the Next 25 Years.”3

The results of these studies are summarized in section 4.2 of this report. In the intervening pages, we summarize current information on the performance of the individual components of these advanced ICE vehicle systems. The intent is two-fold: 1) to provide the reader context for understanding the vehicle systems modeling summarized in section 4.2 and 2) to provide performance information on individual components for those who may seek to model alternative combinations of individual technologies into whole vehicle systems.

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