2005), Oxford Studies in Epistemology (Oxford: Oxford University Press)




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A Priori Knowledge

Core Reading

Kripke, Saul A. (1981), Naming and Necessity (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 34-9, 48-50, 53-8, 99-105, 108-9

Kitcher, Philip (1980), "A Priori Knowledge", Philosophical Review 89, pp. 3-23,

Field, Hartry (2005), "Recent Debates About the A Priori", in Szabo Gendler, Tamar and Hawthorne, John

(2005), Oxford Studies in Epistemology (Oxford: Oxford University Press), ,

Further Reading

Bealer, George (2000), "A Theory of the A Priori", Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 81, pp. 1-30,

Boghossian, Paul A. (1996), "Analyticity Reconsidered", Nous 30, pp. 360-91,

Boghossian, Paul A. and Peacocke, Cristopher (2000), New Essays on the A Priori (Oxford: Clarendon

Press),

Grice, H. P. and Strawson, Peter F. (1956), "In Defence of a Dogma", Philosophical Review 65, pp. 141-58,

Harman, Gilbert H. (1996), "Analyticity Regained?", Nous 30, pp. 392-400,

Jackson, Frank (1998), From Metaphysics to Ethics: A Defence of Conceptual Analysis (Oxford: Oxford

University Press), ch. 2, esp. pp. 46-55

Moser, Paul K. (), "A priori", , pp. ,

Russell, Bertrand (1997), The Problems of Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press), ch. 8

Adjectives

Further Reading

Hamann, C. (1991), "Adjectival Semantics", in von Stechow, A. and Wunderlich, D. (eds.) (1991), Semantics:

An International Handbook of Contemporary Research (Berlin: de Gruyter), ,

Kamp, H. (1975), "Two Theories about Adjectives", in Keenan, E. (ed.) (1975), Formal Semantics of Natural

Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), ,

Klein, Ewan (1980), "A Semantics for Positive and Comparative Adjectives", Linguistics and Philosophy 4,

pp. 1-45,

Larson, Richard K. (), "Semantics of Adjectival Modification", Unpublished , pp. ,

Larson, Richard K. (1995), "Olga is a Beautiful Dancer", , pp. ,

Platts, Mark (1997), Ways of Meaning (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), ch. 7

Ramsey, F. P. (1990), "Universals", in Ramsey, F. P. (1990), Philosophical Papers (Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press), pp. 3-33,

Reimer, Marga (2002), "Do Adjectives Conform to Compositionality?", Philosophical Perspectives 16, pp.

183-98,

Strawson, Peter F. (1974), Subject and Predicate in Logic and Grammar (: Methuen), ch. 5

Szabo, Zoltan Gendler (), "On Qualification", Unpublished , pp. ,

Szabo, Zoltan Gendler (2001), "Adjectives in Context", in Harnish, R. and Kenesei, I. (eds.) (2001),

Perspectives on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Discourse (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 119-46,

Wheeler, Samuel C. (), "Attributives and their Modifiers", Nous , pp. 310-34,

Alternative Logics

Core Reading

Haack, Susan (1978), Philosophy of Logics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), ch. 9-11

[An introduction to the difficult issues.]

Haack, Susan (1996), Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press),

[An introduction to the difficult issues.]

Further Reading

Dummett, Michael (1978), "The Philosophical Basis of Intuitionistic Logic", in Dummett, Michael (1978), Truth

and Other Enigmas (: Duckworth), ,

[An introduction to the issues involved with intuitionistic logic.]

Quine, W. V. (1986), Philosophy of Logic (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), ch. 6

[Scepticism about alternative logics.]

Smiley, Timothy and Priest, Graham (1993), "Can contradictions be true?", Proceedings of the Aristotelian

Society 67, pp. 17-54,

[On paraconsistent logics.]

Ambiguity

Further Reading

Atlas, J. D. (1989), Philosophy without Ambiguity: A Logico-Linguistic Essay (Oxford: Oxford University

Press),

[Examines ambiguity tests and questions certain philosophical appeals to ambiguity.]

Bach, Kent (1994), "Conversational Impliciture", Mind and Language 9, pp. 124-162,

[Contrasts semantic underdetermination with ambiguity.]

Cruse, D. A. (1986), Lexical Semantics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press),

[Discusses linguistic features of ambiguity and examines tests for it.]

Grice, H. P. (1989), "Logic and Conversation", in Grice, H. P. (1989), Studies in the Way of Words

(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), ch. 2,

[Explains how multiple uses of an expression can often be explained without appealing to ambiguity.]

Kripke, Saul A. (1977), "Speaker Reference and Semantic Reference", Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2, pp.

255-76,

[A case study in how to expose a gratuitous philosophical claim of ambiguity.]

Ruhl, C. (1989), On Monosemy: A Study in Linguistic Semantics (Albany: SUNY Press),

[Argues for the presumption that a word has a single though highly abstract meaning rather than the

multiplicity of meanings commonly attributed, as by the list of definitions in its dictionary entry.]

Zwicky, A. and Sadock, J. (1975), "Ambiguity tests and how to fail them", in Kimball, J. (ed.) (1975), Syntax

and Semantics 4 (New York: Academic Press), ,

[Presents and assesses various linguistic tests of ambiguity.]

Analysis of Knowledge

Core Reading

Ayer, A. J. (1956), The Problem of Knowledge (London: Penguin), ch. 1: 'Knowing as having the right to be

sure'

Gettier, Edmund L. (1963), "Is justified true belief knowledge?", Analysis 23, pp. 121-3,

Armstrong, David M. (2000), "The Thermometer Model of Knowledge", in Bernecker, Sven and Dretske,

Fred (eds.) (2000), Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology (Oxford: Oxford University Press),

pp. 72-85,

Goldman, Alvin I. (1967), "A Causal Theory of Knowing", Journal of Philosophy 64, pp. 357-72,

[An externalist theory of knowledge.]

Bonjour, Laurence (1980), "Externalist Theories of Empirical Knowledge", Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5,

pp. 53-73,

Dancy, Jonathan (1985), An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology (Oxford: Blackwell), ch. 2, 3

Goldman, Alvin I. (1976), "Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge", Journal of Philosophy 73, pp. 771-91,

Nozick, Robert (1981), Philosophical Explanations (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), pp. 167-78

Plato, (), Theaetetus (: ),

[Raises the question, What is knowledge?]

Sturgeon, Scott (1995), "Knowledge", in Grayling, A.C. (ed.) (1995), Philosophy 1: A guide through the

subject (Oxford: Oxford University Press), ,

[A good starting point.]

Further Reading

Alcoff, L. M. (1998), Epistemology: The Big Questions (Oxford: Blackwell),

Alston, William P. (1986), "Internalism and Externalism in Epistemology", Philosophical Topics 14, pp. 185-

226,

Bernecker, Sven and Dretske, Fred (eds.) (2000), Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology

(Oxford: Oxford University Press),

Brueckner, Anthony L. (), "Knowledge, Evidence, and Skepticism according to Williamson", , pp. ,

Brueckner, Anthony L. (1984), "Why Nozick is a Sceptic", Mind 93, pp. 259-64,

Brueckner, Anthony L. (1985), "Losing Track of the Sceptic", , pp. ,

Burnyeat, Myles (1990), The Theatetus of Plato (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing),

[An excellent commentary.]

Chisholm, Roderick M. (1988), "The Indispensibility of Internal Justification", Synthese 74, pp. 285-96,

Craig, Edward (1987), "The Practical Explication of Knowledge", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 87,

pp. 211-26,

[A different approach to the question of what knowledge is.]

Dretske, Fred (1971), "Conclusive Reasons", Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49, pp. 1-22,

Foley, Richard (1985), "What is wrong with Reliabilism?", The Monist 68, pp. 188-202,

Forbes, Graeme (), "Nozick on Scepticism", Philosophical Quarterly 34, pp. 43-52,

Ginet, C. (1975), "The General Conditions of Knowledge: Justification", in Ginet, C. (1975), Knowledge,

Perception and Memory (Dordrecht: Reidel), ,

Harman, Gilbert H. (1973), Thought (Princeton: Princeton University Press), pp. 120-41

Howson, Colin (2000), Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief (Oxford: Oxford University

Press), ch. 2

Kim, Jaegwon (1993), "Internalism and Externalism in Epistemology", American Philosophical Quarterly 30,

pp. 303-16,

Kornblith, H. (ed.) (2001), Epistemology: Internalism and Externalism (Oxford: Blackwell),

Lehrer, Keith and Paxson, Thomas D. (1969), "Knowledge: Undefeated Justified True Belief", Journal of

Philosophy 66, pp. 225-37,

Russell, Bertrand (1997), The Problems of Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press),

[Shows, prior to Gettier, that JTB is not suficient for knowledge.]

Shope, Robert K. (1983), The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research (Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press),

Sosa, Ernest (1964), "The Analysis of 'Knowledge that p'", Analysis 25, pp. 1-8,

Sturgeon, Scott (1993), "The Gettier Problem", Analysis 53, pp. 156-64,

[Attempts to draw a general moral from the thirty years of debate.]

Weatherson, Brian (2003), "What Good are Counterexamples?", Philosophical Studies 115, pp. 1-31,

Williamson, Timothy (1995), "Is Knowing a State of Mind?", Mind 104, pp. 533-65,

Williamson, Timothy (2000), Knowledge and its Limits (Oxford: Oxford University Press), ch. 1, 4, 5, 7. Esp.

pp. 31-33

Analytic vs Synthetic

Core Reading

Ayer, A. J. (1936), Language, Truth and Logic (London: Penguin Group), ch. 4

Further Reading

Boghossian, Paul A. (1996), "Analyticity Reconsidered", Nous 30, pp. 360-91,

[A recent response to Quine.]

Grice, H. P. and Strawson, Peter F. (1956), "In Defence of a Dogma", Philosophical Review 65, pp. 141-58,

Kripke, Saul A. (?), "Identity and Necessity", in , pp. 135-164,

Kripke, Saul A. (1981), Naming and Necessity (Oxford: Blackwell), Selections printed in Crane and Farkas

Quine, W. V. (1966), "Carnap on Logical Truth", in Quine, W. V. (1966), The Ways of Paradox (Cambridge,

MA: Harvard University Press), ,

Quine, W. V. (1966), "Truth by Convention", in Quine, W. V. (1966), The Ways of Paradox (Cambridge,

MA: Harvard University Press), ,

Quine, W. V. (1980), "Two Dogmas of Empiricism", in Quine, W. V. (1980), From a Logical point of View

(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), ,

Appearance Talk

Further Reading

Armstrong, David M. (1961), Perception and the Physical World (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul),

Austin, J. L. (1962), Sense and Sensibilia (Oxford: Oxford University Press),

Ayer, A. J. (1940), The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge (London: MacMillan Press),

Broad, C. D. (1923), Scientific Thought (New York: Harcourt),

Chisholm, Roderick M. (1950), "The Theory of Appearing", in Black, Max (ed.) (1950), Philosophical

Analysis (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press), 102-18,

Chisholm, Roderick M. (1957), "Three Uses of Appear Words", in Chisholm, Roderick M. (1957),

Perceiving: A Philosophical Study (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press), ch. 4,

Chisholm, Roderick M. (1957), Perceiving: A Philosophical Study (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press),

Chisholm, Roderick M. (1965), "'Appear', 'Take', and 'Evident'", in Swartz, R. (ed.) (1965), Perceiving,

Sensing and Knowing (New York: Anchor Books), 473-85,

Evans, Gareth (1982), The Varieties of Reference (Oxford: Clarendon Press),

Gibson, Q. (1966), "Is There a Problem About Appearances?", Philosophical Quarterly 16, pp. 319-28,

Goodman, Nelson (1966), The Structure of Appearance (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill),

Hintikka, J. (1969), "On the Logic of Perception", in Hintikka, J. (1969), Models for Modalities (Dordrecht:

Reidel), pp. 151-83,

Jackson, Frank (1977), Perception: A Representative Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press),

Knox, John (), "Concerning the Argument from Perspectival Variation", , pp. ,

Knox, John (1967), "The Logic of Appearing", Inquiry 10, pp. 245-50,

Knox, John (1970), "Do Appearances Exist?", APQ Monograph 4, pp. 79-101,

Knox, John (1970), "Speaking of Appearances", Personalist 51, pp. 387-92,

Leeds, Stephen (1975), "Two Senses of 'Appears Red'", Philosophical Studies 28, pp. 199-205,

Martin, M. G. F. (1997), "The Reality of Appearances", in Sainsbury, Mark (ed.) (1997), Thought and

Ontology (Milan: Franco Angeli), pp. 81-106,

Pettit, Philip (2003), "Looks as Powers", Philosophical Issues 13, pp. 221-52,

Pitcher, George (1971), A Theory of Perception (Princeton: Princeton University Press),

Price, H. H. (1941), "Review of Ayer", Mind 50, pp. 293,

Price, H. H. (1950), Perception (London: Methuen),

Price, H. H. (1964), "Appearing and Appearances", American Philosophical Quarterly 1, pp. 3-19,

Quinton, A. M. (), The Nature of Things (: ),

Quinton, A. M. (1955), "The Problem of Perception", Mind 64, pp. 28-51,

Roxbee Cox, J. W. (1971), "An Analysis of Perceiving in Terms of the Causation of Beliefs I", in Sibley, F. N.

(ed.) (1971), Perception: A Philosophical Symposium (London: Methuen), pp. 23-64,

Sellars, Wilfrid (1997), Empiricism & The Philosophy of Mind (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press),

Smart, J. J. C. (1995), "'Looks Red' and Dangerous Talk", Philosophy 70, pp. 545-54,

Strawson, Galen (1989), "Red and 'Red'", Synthese 78, pp. 193-232,

Travis, Charles (2004), "The Silence of the Senses", Mind 113, pp. 57-94,

Vesey, G. (1956), "Seeing and Seeing As", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56, pp. 109-24,

Vesey, G. (1971), "Analysing Seeing II", in Sibley, F. N. (ed.) (1971), Perception: A Philosophical

Symposium (London: Methuen), pp. 108-112,

Vesey, G. (1971), Perception (London: MacMillan Press),

Argument from Binding

Further Reading

Partee, Barbara (), "Binding Implicit Variables in Quantified Contexts", , pp. 342-65,

Recanati, Francois (2004), "Indexicalism and the Binding Fallacy", in Recanati, Francois (2004), Literal

Meaning (New York: Cambridge University Press), ch. 7,

Stanley, Jason (2002), "Nominal Restriction", in Preyer, Gerhard and Peter, Georg (eds.) (2002), Logical

Form and Language (Oxford: Oxford University Press), ,

Berkeley

Further Reading

Berkeley, George (), Principles of Human Knowledge (: Oxford University Press),

Causation

Core Reading

Mackie, J. L. (1965), "Causes and Conditions", American Philosophical Quarterly 2, pp. , pp. 245-55, 261-4

[Defends an INUS view of causation.]

Lewis, David (1986), "Causation", in Lewis, David (1986), Philosophical Papers (Oxford: Oxford University

Press), ,

[Develops a counterfactual analysis of causation. See also his postscripts.]

Salmon, Wesley (1993), "Causality: Production and Propagation", in Sosa, Ernest and Tooley, Michael (eds.)

(1993), Causation (Oxford: Oxford University Press), ch. 9,

Davidson, Donald (1967), "Causal Relations", Journal of Philosophy 64, pp. 691-703,

[Discussion of event vs fact causation. Argues that causes and effects are events. Causation is an extensional

binary relation between events. Clarifies various important issues.]

Hume, David (), An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (: ), ch. 7

Hume, David (ed.) (1969), A Treatise of Human Nature (London: Penguin Group), I. iv.

Kim, Jaegwon (1973), "Causes and Counterfactuals", Journal of Philosophy 70, pp. 570-2,

[Discusses Lewis' views]

Salmon, Wesley (), "Causal Connections", , pp. ,

[Argues that processes rather than events must be taken as fundamental. Transmission of a mark is what

distinguishes causal processes from pseudo processes.]

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