The Amphibious Forces of the us navy




НазваниеThe Amphibious Forces of the us navy
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[edit] Last WWII survivors

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HMS Stalker

HMS Stalker, previously LST-3515 survived until 2010 at what was formerly Pounds scrapyard at the northern end of Portsea Island.

USS LST-325, previously LST-120 and Hellenic Navy RHS Syros (L-144) is one of the last operating survivors of World War II. It is currently home ported at Evansville, Indiana at the USS LST Memorial museum. The ship is kept in navigable shape and participated in a cruise from Evansville, Indiana to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania for the Amphibious Reunion in Pittsburgh from September 1–7, 2010. Upon completion of the reunion, the ship sailed from Pittsburgh to Marietta, Ohio, to take part in the Sternwheel Festival.[14]

USS LST-510 participated in the Invasion of Normandy and has operated as a ferry in New England for almost 30 years. She currently operates between New London, Connecticut and Long Island, New York.

USS LST-393 which participated in the landings on Sicily; at Salerno, and the Invasion of Normandy is now located in Muskegon, Michigan as a museum and undergoing restoration.

USS Maricopa County, previously USS LST-938, had been transferred to the Republic of Vietnam Navy, and after the Fall of Saigon was captured by North Vietnamese forces. As of 2003[update], she is active and in commission with the Vietnamese People's Navy as the Tran Khanh Du.

The Philippine Navy received 20+ units of the LST Mk.2 starting in the late 1940s, and still have 7 units on their active list as of 2010. This includes BRP Laguna (LT-501) (ex-USS LST-230), BRP Zamboanga del Sur (LT-86) (ex-USS Marion County (LST-975), BRP Kalinga Apayao (LT-516) (ex-USS Garrett County (LST-786) and BRP Benguet (LT-507) (ex-USS Daviess County (LST-692).

[edit] Modern developments

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The USS Frederick (LST-1184) at sea. Today's Newport-class ships can debark amphibious vehicles from their stern gates.

The commissioning of the Newport-class in 1969 marked the introduction of an entirely new concept in the design of LSTs. She was the first of a new class of 20 LSTs capable of steaming at a sustained speed of 20 knots (37 km/h). To obtain that speed, the traditional blunt bow doors of the LST were replaced by a pointed ship bow. Unloading is accomplished through the use of a 112-foot (34 m) ramp operated over the bow and supported by twin derrick arms. A stern gate to the tank deck permits unloading of LVTs into the water or the unloading of other vehicles into a landing craft utility (LCU), onto a pier, or directly into the water. Capable of operating with high-speed amphibious squadrons consisting of LHAs, LPDs, and LSDs, the Newport-class LST can transport tanks, other heavy vehicles, and engineer equipment which cannot readily be landed by helicopters or landing craft. The Newport type has been removed from the U.S. Navy, but serves on in the navies of Brazil, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Taiwan, Spain, in a modified form, Australia and soon with Peru. Indian Navy also maintains a fleet of LSTs.

[edit] Literature

The Ninety and Nine by William Brinkley, author of Don't Go Near the Water, portrays an LST running supplies to Anzio during World War II. The title refers to the ship's company of ninety enlisted men and nine officers. The book opens with a quotation attributed to Winston Churchill - "The destinies of two great empires ... seemed to be tied by some god-damned things called LST's."

In the biography MAN IN MOTION: Michigan's Legendary Senate Majority Leader, Emil Lockwood by Stanley C. Fedewa and Marilyn H. Fedewa, Lockwood colorfully describes his World War II service aboard LST-478. "We were always in the thick of it," Emil said, "because it was our job on the LSTs to carry personnel-operated tanks, artillery, supplies—anything, you name it—into the heart of a war zone."[15]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

Notes

    1. ^ a b c d e f Lenton & Colledge (1968) p.577

    2. ^ Chris Bishop The Encyclopedia of Weapons of WWII: The Comprehensive Guide p532

    3. ^ Brown, D K, Nelson to Vanguard pp. 142-143

    4. ^ Rottman p6

    5. ^ Brown p 143

    6. ^ Brown, D K p143

    7. ^ Niedermair (November 1982) p.58

    8. ^ a b Niedermair (November 1982) p.59

    9. ^ Ft. Knox's Ark: The LST Building

    10. ^ Wyckoff (November 1982) p.51

    11. ^ Rottman p6

    12. ^ http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/Admin-Hist/068B-Med/068-Med-17.html#fn6 "Medical Preparation and Casualty Handing, Operation Overlord", pp. 3-4.

    13. ^ Gordon L. Rottman, Tony Bryan, Peter Sarson, Landing Ship, Tank (LST) 1942-2002, Osprey Publishing, p. 47, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=0rAV7fxSp7cC&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=hms+boxer+LST&source=web&ots=7pSo5Dr9We&sig=jyKPgU41MXjudLYeNZmtDSm5fuI&hl=en

    14. ^ http://www.newsandsentinel.com/page/content.detail/id/538887/LST-325-makes-way-to-Marietta.html?nav=5061

    15. ^ Fedewa, Stanley C., Fedewa, Marilyn H. MAN IN MOTION: Michigan's Legendary Senate Majority Leader, Emil Lockwood (Llumina/MSU Press, 2003)

Bibliography

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

  • Lenton, H.T. & Colledge, J.J. (1968). British and Dominion Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company.

  • Niedermair, John C. (November 1982). As I Recall...Designing the LST. United States Naval Institute Proceedings.

  • Wyckoff, Don P., Colonel USMC (November 1982). Let There Be Built Great Ships.... United States Naval Institute Proceedings.

  • Selected Papers On British Warship Design In World War - From The Transactions Of The Royal Institute Of Naval Architects, Conways Maritime Press, 1947, reprinted 1983. ISBN 0 85177 284 6

  • Baker, R. (1947) Ships of the Invasion Fleet. Proceeding of the Royal Institute of Naval Architects, Vol. 89 pp. 59–72.

  • Brown, D.K. (Ed.), The Design And Construction Of British Warships 1939-1945, Vol 3 Amphibious Warfare Vessels And Auxiliaries. ISBN 0 85177 675 2

  • Brown, D.K. (Ed.), The Design and Construction of British Warships 1939–1945 The Official Record, Conway Maritime Press, London, 1996. pp 73–80.

  • Carter, Geoffrey, Crises Do Happen - The Royal Navy And Operation Musketeer, Suez 1956, Maritime Books, 2006.

  • Cowsill, Miles, By Road Across The Sea - The History Of Atlantic Steam Navigation Company, Ferry Publications 1990. ISBN 1 871947 07 3

  • Ladd, J.D., Assault From The Sea 1939-1945, ISBN 0 7153 6937-7

  • Lenton, H.T., Warships of the British and Commonwealth Navies 1966, Ian Allan Publishing, 1971.

  • Lovering, Tristan, Amphibious Assault, Manoeuvre from the sea, Seafarer Books. ISBN 13; 9780955024351

  • Macdermott, Brian, Ships Without Names - The Story of The Royal Navy’s Tank Landing Ships In World War Two, Arms & Armour 1992. ISBN 1-85409-126-3

  • Marriot, Leo, Royal Navy Aircraft Carriers 1945-1990, Ian Allan 1985. ISBN 0 7110 1561 9

  • New Vanguard 115, Osprey Publishing

  • Rottman, Gordon L., Landing Ship Tank (LST) 1942-2002, New Vanguard, 2005. ISBN 1 84176 923 1

  • Speller, Ian, The Role of Amphibious warfare in British Defence Policy, 1945-56, Cormorant Security Series, Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-80097-4

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