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Ahrweiler P, Pyka A, Gilbert N (2011) A New Model for University-Industry Links in Knowledge-Based Economies. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:218-235 In this paper, we apply the agent-based SKIN model (Simulating Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Networks) to university-industry links. The model builds on empirical research about innovation networks in knowledge-intensive industries with procedures relying on theoretical frameworks of innovation economics and economic sociology. Our experiments compare innovation networks with and without university agents. Results show that having universities in the co-operating population of actors raises the competence level of the whole population, increases the variety of knowledge among the firms, and increases innovation diffusion in terms of quantity and speed. Furthermore, firms interacting with universities are more attractive for other firms when new partnerships are considered. These results can be validated against empirical findings. The simulation confirms that university-industry links improve the conditions for innovation diffusion and enhance collaborative arrangements in innovation networks.
Alam SS (2011) Entrepreneur's traits and firm innovation capability: an empirical study in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 19:53-66 This research investigates how entrepreneurs' personality traits affect firm innovation capability. It posits that entrepreneurs would feel inclined to become involved into the different phases of the innovation process in the firm depending on their personality traits. The convenient sampling of non-probability sampling was adopted. Most of the major towns in Peninsular Malaysia have been chosen for the purpose of collecting the data. Hypotheses relating the personality factors (achievement, opportunity, confidence, innovativeness, independent, risk taking and openness to experience) and firm innovation capability were tested by using multiple regression analysis on survey data from a sample of 1416 entrepreneurs from Malaysia. The study revealed that the personality traits of an entrepreneur had significant impact on the firm innovation capability in Malaysia. The area on which this study concentrates does not have many extensive academic researches yet. Even though this study has some limitations and problems, it has several managerial implications. This study could be particularly useful for policy makers to get some ideas and develop suitable training programs to help and assist the entrepreneur in their future endeavors.
Allarakhia M, Steven W (2011) Managing knowledge assets under conditions of radical change: The case of the pharmaceutical industry. Technovation 31:105-117 There is no industry where firms link their search for competitive advantage more closely to intellectual property (IF) than those in the pharmaceutical industry. Yet a major paradigm change is occurring in this industry. New technological developments are increasingly being driven by advances in biology, nanotechnology, and the computational sciences. In this paper, we investigate how this radical change in the investigation, discovery, and manufacture of pharmaceuticals has affected intellectual property management practices. Large pharmaceutical firms, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and public institutional knowledge generators have recently started to respond by developing new IF management techniques born from the use of consortia to manage the complexities of knowledge generation. Hence, we leverage innovation and knowledge management literature, and use the innovation journey and case study methodologies to investigate both traditional pharmaceutical IF practices as well as emerging strategies. We distil from this effort an IF model the transition point model designed to assist firms to effectively manage both knowledge assets and the associated intellectual property in the current paradigm.
Ambos B, Ambos TC (2011) Meeting the challenge of offshoring R&D: an examination of firm- and location-specific factors. R & D Management 41:107-119 This paper, through a systematic survey of 83 international R&D engagements of 36 German MNCs, seeks to extend previous research on the location decisions of international R&D engagements and inform managers about the critical factors that may be considered when taking this important decision. Covering engagements in 21 countries, we show that the knowledge intensity of the industry as well as variables pertaining to the process school of internationalization play an important role when offshoring R&D.
Antcliff R (2011) Industrial Research Institute's R&D Trends Forecast for 2011. Research-Technology Management 54:18-23
Arza V, Lopez A (2011) Firms' linkages with public research organisations in Argentina: Drivers, perceptions and behaviours. Technovation 31:384-400 This paper analyses firms' drivers for linking to public research organisations (PRO) (first goal) and compares perceptions and behaviours of linked vs. unlinked firms (second goal). We used an original firm database constructed from a representative survey with information for linked and unlinked firms for year 2005 in Argentina. Drivers were estimated using a Probit model, while differences in perceptions and behaviours between linked and unlinked firms were assessed with propensity score matching techniques. For our first goal we found that (i) firms' knowledge bases were not drivers for linking to PRO and (ii) networking capabilities matter but there is a substitution effect between interacting with PRO and interacting with other economic agents in the market when firms aim at exchanging information rather than doing joint research. These findings may imply that current linkages are not exploiting properly their knowledge potential; it may be worth designing a division of labour among PRO in their functions in PRO-industry interactions. For our second goal: we found that (i) linked firms invest more in innovative activities; (ii) they are more prone to patenting; (iii) both groups of firms value similarly PRO research outputs available at arm length (i.e. without direct linking). Given the asymmetric development on appropriability tools between PRO and firms and the fact that all firms benefit from PRO research outputs, the higher predisposition of linked firms towards patenting, suggests that special attention should be placed at analysing the risks of a private appropriation of publicly created knowledge.
Atuahene-Gima K, Wei YH (2011) The Vital Role of Problem-Solving Competence in New Product Success. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:81-98 Problem solving, a process of seeking, defining, evaluating, and implementing the solutions, is considered a converter that can translate organizational inputs into valuable product and service outputs. A key challenge for the product innovation community is to answer questions about how knowledge competence and problem-solving competence develop and sustain competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to theoretically examine and empirically test an existing assumption that problem-solving competence is an important variable connecting market knowledge competence with new product performance. New product projects from 396 firms in the high-technology zones in China were used to test the study's theoretical model. The results first indicate that problem-solving speed and creativity matter in new product innovation performance by playing mediator roles between market knowledge competence and positional advantage, which in turn sustains superior performance. This new insight suggest that mere generation of market knowledge and having a marketing-research and development (R&D) interface will not affect new product performance unless project members have the ability to use the information and to interact to identify and solve complex problems speedily and creatively. Second, these results suggest that different market knowledge competences (customers, competitors, and interactions between marketing and R&D) have distinct impacts on problem-solving speed and creativity (positive, negative, or none), which underscore the need to embrace a more fine-grained notion of market knowledge competence. The results also reveal that the relative importance of some of these relationships depends on the perceived level of turbulence in the environment. First, competitor knowledge competence decreases problem-solving speed when perceived environmental turbulence is low but enhances problem-solving speed when perceived turbulence is high. Second, competitor knowledge competence has a positive relationship with new product performance when the environmental turbulence is high but no relationship when the environmental turbulence is low. Third, the positive relationship between problem-solving speed and product advantage is stronger when the perceived environmental turbulence is high than when it is low, which implies that problem solving is more important for creating product advantage when environmental turbulence is high and change is fast and unpredictable. Fourth, the negative relationship between problem-solving speed and new product performance is stronger when the perceived environmental turbulence is high than when it is low, which means that problem-solving speed is more harmful for new product performance when change is fast and unpredictable. And fifth, the positive relationship between product quality and new product performance is stronger when perceived environmental turbulence is low than when it is high, which implies that product quality may more likely lead to new product performance when the environment is stable and changes are easy to predict, analyze, and comprehend.
Badawy MK (2011) "Is open innovation a field of study or a communication barrier to theory development?": A perspective. Technovation 31:65-67
Bajpai GN, Euchner J (2011) Innovation in Emerging Markets: an Interview with G. N. Bajpai. Research-Technology Management 54:12-16
Barrett CW, van Biljon P, Musso C (2011) R&D Strategies in Emerging Economies: Results from the Mckinsey Global Survey. Research-Technology Management 54:17-22 The 2011 McKinsey Global Survey on R&D, performed in March, took place just as political instability in the Middle East brought rising oil prices, and with them, a new round of economic uncertainty. Yet, respondents indicated that R&D budgets continue to rise, and a significant portion of that money could go to R&D centers in emerging markets. The survey report offers unique insight and data regarding trends and concerns around managing R&D in emerging markets.
Bertels HMJ, Kleinschmidt EJ, Koen PA (2011) Communities of Practice versus Organizational Climate: Which One Matters More to Dispersed Collaboration in the Front End of Innovation? Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:757-772 Dispersed collaboration provides many benefits such as members' closeness to local cultures and markets and reachability of talent worldwide. Hence, it is no surprise that dispersed collaboration is frequently being used by product development teams. A necessary but not sufficient condition for innovation performance is the sharing of tacit, noncodified and explicit, codified knowledge by the team. Situated learning theory, however, predicts that tacit knowledge sharing will be largely prevented by "decontextualization." Therefore, increasing usage of dispersed collaboration will decrease levels of tacit knowledge-crucial to innovation and organizational performance-in the business unit. This research investigates the moderating role of mechanisms believed to enable tacit knowledge transfer in the front end of innovation. Using data from 116 business units, the moderating role of communities of practice and organizational climate on the relationship between the proficiency of dispersed collaboration and front end of innovation performance is investigated. Encouragement of communities of practice is found to moderate the relationship between proficiency of dispersed collaboration and front end of innovation performance on the business unit level. More specifically, proficiency of dispersed collaboration is not related at all to front end of innovation performance in business units with low support for communities of practice; but a positive relationship exists in business units with high support for communities of practice. This study does not provide support for the moderating effect of organizational climate on the relationship between proficiency in dispersed collaboration and front end of innovation performance. However, supportiveness of climate has a significant direct effect on front end of innovation performance. The findings of this study suggest that managers should simultaneously invest in increasing proficiency in dispersed collaboration and supporting communities of practice. Either one by itself is insufficient. Because of its significant direct effect, managers should also nurture an open climate favoring risk taking, trust, and open interaction.
Bianchi M, Cavaliere A, Chiaroni D, Frattini F, Chiesa V (2011) Organisational modes for Open Innovation in the bio-pharmaceutical industry: An exploratory analysis. Technovation 31:22-33 This paper investigates the adoption of Open Innovation in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, studying through which organisational modes it is put into practice and how these modes are interwoven with the different phases of drug discovery and development process. Two rounds of interviews with industry experts were carried out to develop a model describing the adoption of Open Innovation by bio-pharmaceutical companies. This framework was then applied to an extensive and longitudinal empirical basis, which includes data about the adoption of Open Innovation by the top 20 worldwide industry players, in the time period 2000-2007. The paper provides a thorough discussion of how bio-pharmaceutical firms have used different organisational modes (i.e. licensing agreements, non-equity alliance, purchase and supply of technical and scientific services) to enter into relationship with different types of partners (i.e. large pharmaceutical companies, product biotech firms, platform biotech firms and universities) with the aim to acquire (Inbound Open Innovation) or commercially exploit (Outbound Open Innovation) technologies and knowledge. The implications of the study for Open Innovation research and possible avenues for future investigation are discussed at length in the paper.
Bianchi M, Chiaroni D, Chiesa V, Frattini F (2011) Organizing for external technology commercialization: evidence from a multiple case study in the pharmaceutical industry. R & D Management 41:120-137 External technology commercialization (ETC) is increasingly being regarded as a strategic priority by companies. ETC is the use of out-licensing to transfer technologies that are disembodied from products to other organizations. Previous research has focused on the economic and strategic dimensions but little attention has so far been paid to how ETC should be organized. This paper explores whether and how firms operating in different contexts adopt dissimilar organizational solutions for their ETC activities. To this aim, a theoretical framework is first developed that comprises the key constitutive elements of ETC organization and a number of firm-level and deal-level factors that are supposed to influence organizational design choices. Based on a multiple case-study analysis involving 16 out-licensing deals executed in seven Italian pharmaceutical firms, the paper shows that the organization of out-licensing tasks and the allocation of decision-making power is shaped by, and adapts to, the relevance of ETC in the corporate strategy, the volume of ETC transactions, the stage of development of the technology being commercialized and the competitive threats due to the deal. The paper is believed to be useful for licensing and R&D managers who can find practical insights into how ETC activities can be organized and which critical contextual factors should be accounted for when designing such organization.
Инновации в постсоветской промышленности / Под редакцией В. И. Кабалиной. Часть Сыктывкар: изд-во Сыктывкарского ун-та, 2000. C....