This manual is a compilation of flight training maneuvers and procedures for the Piper Arrow. This manual provides standardized procedures for completing each




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Piper Arrow

PA-28R-201

Maneuvers Manual

Arrow Manual

Revision: 1

Date: August 20, 2008


INTRODUCTION

This manual is a compilation of flight training maneuvers and procedures for the Piper Arrow. This manual provides standardized procedures for completing each VFR and IFR maneuver required by the FAA’s Practical Test Standards for the Private, Instrument, Commercial, and Flight Instructor Practical Tests.

This manual does not take the place of current FAA publications. References to those publications can be found at the top and bottom of each page for further study. These references should be used in order to enhance the students understanding of each maneuver.


It is important to keep in mind that this manual provides only a standardized guide to performing each maneuver, and that actual pitch or power settings may vary. All VFR maneuvers should be completed with references to pitch attitude made using the horizon. All IFR maneuvers should be completed with references to pitch attitude made using the attitude indicator. The student

should be aware that small adjustments to pitch and power should be made in flight in order to successfully complete each maneuver.

It is the instructor’s responsibility to teach each maneuver based upon this guide and to ensure the student fully understands and can perform each maneuver required.

This manual should serve only as a guide to completing the required maneuvers and should not be used in place of competent instruction or thorough and complete study of FAA publications. Students should use this manual in combination with the Airplane Flying Handbook, the Instrument Flying Handbook, the Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, the FAA Practical Test Standards, and any other relevant FAA documents.


**Note: The pictures in this manual were taken from the Piper website, The Airplane Flying Handbook, and The Instrument Flying Handbook.


PA28R- 201MANEUVERS MANUAL

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL FLIGHT PROCEDURES PA28R-201 6

BRIEFINGS 8

RETRACTABLE GEAR OPERATIONS 10

FLIGHT AT MANEUVERING SPEED 10

PA28R-201 V-SPEEDS IN KIAS 12

TAXI OPERATIONS 14

INTSRUMENT COCKPIT CHECK 16

TRAFFIC PATTERN OPERATIONS 18

TRAFFIC PATTERN OPERATIONS AT NON-TOWERED AIRPORTS 22

NORMAL TAKEOFF AND CLIMB 26

NORMAL APPROACH AND LANDING 28

CROSSWIND TAKEOFF AND CLIMB 30

CROSSWIND APPROACH AND LANDING 32

TURBULENT AIR APPROACH AND LANDING 34

SOFT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB 36

SOFT-FIELD APPROACH AND LANDING 38

SHORT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB 40

SHORT-FIELD APPROACH AND LANDING 42

180 DEGREE POWER-OFF ACCURACY

APPROACH 44

FORWARD SLIPS 46

GO-AROUNDS (REJECTED LANDINGS) 48

STEEP TURNS 50

STEEP SPIRAL 52

CHANDELLE 54

LAZY EIGHTS 56

EIGHTS-ON-PYLONS 58

RECTANGULAR COURSE 60

S-TURNS ACROSS A ROAD 62

TURNS AROUND A POINT 64

DIVERSION 66

LOST PROCEDURES 68

MINIMUM CONTROLLABLE AIRSPEED 70

MANEUVERING DURING SLOW FLIGHT 72

POWER-OFF STALL 74

POWER-ON STALL 76

SECONDARY STALL (DEMONSTRATION) 80

CROSS-CONTROL STALL (DEMONSTRATION) 82

ELEVATOR TRIM STALL (DEMONSTRATION) 84

POWER–OFF STALL (FALLING LEAF

DEMONSTRATION) 86

ACCELERATED STALL (DEMONSTRATION) 88

EMERGENCY APPROACH AND LANDING 90

EMERGENCY DESCENT 92

NO-FLAP LANDING 94

RECOVERY FROM UNUSUAL ATTITUDES 96

HOLDING PROCEDURES 98

TRACKING VOR RADIALS 100

INTERCEPTING VOR RADIALS 102

TRACKING NDB BEARINGS 104

INTERCEPTING NDB BEARINGS 106

INTERCEPTING AND TRACKING DME ARCS 108

NON-PRECISION APPROACH 110

PRECISION ILS APPROACH 112

MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE 114

CIRCLING APPROACH PROCEDURE 116


GENERAL FLIGHT PROCEDURES PA28R-201

These are the normal procedural steps to be followed when conducting training in the PA28R-201Piper Arrow under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules. All maneuvers will require the pre-maneuver checklist to be completed prior to commencing each maneuver.


Pre-maneuver checklist items



1. Verify minimum recovery altitude

2. BCGUMPS Checklist

Boost pump

Carb Heat

Gas

Undercarriage

Mixture

Props

Seatbelts

3. Two 90 degree clearing turns


MINIMUM ALTITUDES

Simulated engine failures will be practiced on dual flights only and will not descend below 500 ft. above ground level in non-congested areas, 1000ft. above ground level in congested areas. With the exception of ground reference maneuvers, all maneuvers will be completed no lower than 2000 ft. above ground level.


CLEARING TURNS

A minimum of two clearing turns are required before each maneuver to ensure there is no traffic in the area. Clearing turns should be done at a bank angle of no more than 30° with each turn being at least 90°. There must be a break between each turn. Emphasis should be placed on keeping the aircraft in a limited geographic area to complete the maneuver. It is recommended that that the aircraft be momentarily banked in the direction opposite of the clearing turn to clear the area

above the wings.


POSITIVE EXCHANGE OF FLIGHT CONTROLS

During flight training, there must always be a clear understanding between students and flight instructors of who has control of the aircraft. A positive three-step process in the exchange of flight controls will be conducted. When the instructor wishes the student to take control of the aircraft, he or she will say, “You have the flight controls.” The student will acknowledge by saying, “I have the flight controls.” The flight instructor again says, “You have the flight controls.” When control is returned to the instructor, follow the same procedure. A visual check by both student and instructor to verify the exchange is also recommended.


BRIEFINGS

Briefings should be used for certain phases of flight so that all parties involved understand important characteristics of the flight. All briefings should include takeoff, passenger, and positive exchange of the flight controls.


PASSENGER BRIEFINGS

During the “Before Start” checklist, each aircraft occupant should be thoroughly briefed on:

• Seatbelt operation.

• Aircraft entry and exit procedures.

• Emergency procedures and equipment

location. (i.e. fire extinguishers)

• No eating, smoking, or drinking, except water.

• Use of only pencils, not pens in the aircraft


TAKEOFF BRIEFINGS

During the “Before Takeoff” checklist, the pilot should give a takeoff briefing that includes:

• Type of takeoff.

• Applicable aircraft V-speeds.

• Takeoff distances.

• Emergency procedures during takeoff.

• Positive exchange of flight controls.


APPROACH BRIEFINGS

When approaching an airport for landing under VFR, the pilot should give an approach briefing that includes:

• Active runway.

• Type of landing.

• Landing distance.

• Emergency procedures during landing.

For IFR flights, the pilot should use the approach plate as a guide to give the approach briefing proceeding from the header to the minimums section of the approach plate.

• Frequencies.

• Inbound final approach course.

• MDA or DA.

• Timing.

• Missed approach procedure.

• Airport diagram

• Circling procedures if applicable

RETRACTABLE LANDING GEAR OPERATIONS

FAA-H-8083-3a, page 11-9

When conducting operations in an airplane equipped with retractable landing gear, a minimum of three gear down checks and callouts are required:

• Abeam the touchdown point or when beginning initial descent for landing.

• Base- gear down three green

• Final.-gear down three green

• Short final-gear down, prop fwd, flaps_°, cleared to land

The pilot flying the airplane will place the gear selector down and callout, “Airspeed___, below 129, Gear down, three green, no red, and confirm gear down.” The pilot not flying will verify the gear is down and locked and callout, “Gear down confirmed.”


FLIGHT AT MANEUVERING SPEED

Training Cruise has been established for use prior to any maneuvering flight. Its purpose is to keep the training airplane at an appropriate airspeed prior to the commencement of a maneuver and to ensure that during maneuvering the airplane remains within a limited geographic area.

1. From a climb, smoothly level off at the desired altitude by slowly lowering the nose to a level pitch attitude.

2. Allow the airplane to accelerate to 110 KIAS.

Operations at 110 KIAS allow for a safe margin below VA, even at lighter operating weights. Maneuvers performed at a constant speed (constant altitude turns, ground reference maneuvers, etc.) should be done at 110 KIAS. Decelerating maneuvers (stalls, maneuvering at slow flight, etc.) should be started at 110 KIAS.

3. Adjust MP and RPM to maintain 110 KIAS for the existing conditions. Set trim, this power setting should be approximately 18-19” MP and 2500 RPM. The configuration may vary depending upon altitude, temperature, and aircraft weight.

4. Complete the Cruise Checklist.


CRUISE


Power…………..………………….….Set

Mixture…………..……………………Set

Prop…………….……………..Set to chart

Fuel Selector……….………...Proper Tank


CRUISE CHECK COMPLETE




ENROUTE CRUISE

Enroute Cruise is to be used when relatively long periods of straight and level flight are required (cross country navigation or flying between airports in the local area). Before starting air work, slow to Training Cruise.

1. Level off smoothly at the desired altitude by slowly lowering the nose to a level pitch attitude.

2. Allow the airplane to accelerate to the appropriate airspeed. The airspeed for enroute cruise will be determined by using either the Best Economy Cruise or the Best Power Cruise performance table, as required.

3. Set the power according to the performance chart being used and trim for level flight.

4. Complete the Cruise Checklist.


VA FORMULA

Va2 =Vaw2/w1

Va2=Maneuvering speed (at the weight you are trying to find)

Va =Maneuvering speed at max gross weight

W2=Actual airplane weight

W1=Maximum weightArrow V-SPEEDS IN KIAS



KIAS

REMARKS


Vso

55

Stall speed gear down, flaps 40°

Vs

60

Stall speed gear up, flaps 0°

Vr

65-75

50-60

Rotation speed

Short field

Vx

Vy

72 G↓

78 G↓

Best angel of climb

Best rate of climb

Vx

Vy

78G↑

90G↑

Best angle of climb

Best rate of climb

Vy

104

Cruise climb

Vfe

103

Maximum flap extension speed

Va

118

Maneuvering speed @ 2750 lbs. G.W.

Va

96

Maneuvering speed @ 1865 lbs.

Vle

129

Maximum speed with gear extended

Vlo up

107G↑

Maximum gear retraction speed

Vlo dn

129G↓

Maximum gear extension speed

Vno

146

Maximum structural speed

Vne

183

Never exceed speed

Vglide

79

Best glide, Gear and Flaps ↑







Maximum demonstrated crosswind 17 kts
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