Official history of the canadian forces in the great war




НазваниеOfficial history of the canadian forces in the great war
страница1/64
Дата конвертации09.02.2013
Размер4.14 Mb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   64
OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN FORCES IN THE GREAT WAR


1914-19


THE


MEDICAL SERVICES


BY


SIR ANDREW MACPHAIL


Kt., O.B.E., B.A., M.D., C.M., LL.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.R.S.C.

PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE, McGILL UNIVERSITY


PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTER OF NATIONAL DEFENCE,

UNDER DIRECTION OF THE GENERAL STAFF


5 M 6-24

H.Q. 393-S-154.


83635-11


Ottawa


F. A. ACLAND


Printer to the King j Most Excellent Majesty

1925


NOTE


In the writing of this book the author, by the terms

of his commission, was given full access to all relevant

documents in possession of the Department of National

Defence. The facts and figures used by him have been

verified from official sources; but he was left free to select

and arrange the material. The inferences drawn and the

opinions expressed are those of the author himself.


PREFACE


The Historical Section of the Canadian General Staff

was reorganized in June, 1921. It was charged by Privy

Council with the task of collecting and safeguarding all

papers concerning the Canadian Forces in the Great War,

1914-1919, and with the reduction of the mass of evidence

into a comprehensive history for official publication.


The work has advanced steadily; material has been

assembled and classified, but much is still to be obtained.

Maps which form the basis of the design have been com

piled from documents, and are being gradually completed

from the testimony of officers who took part in the

operations.


Some of the volumes will contain general history;

some will be devoted to particular arms, branches, and

services; all will be based on official documents. Maps

sufficient for the general reader will be bound with the

text; more detailed maps issued separately will provide

for more profound study.


The present book is the first of the series. On the

recommendation of the Chief of the General Staff and

under authority of Order in Council dated October 7, 1921,

Sir Andrew Macphail was commissioned to write it; pub

lication was ordered by Privy Council on June 3, 1924.


A subsidiary function of the Historical Section is to

give advice and assistance to properly accredited regi

mental historians who have undertaken the task of pre

serving in print the exploits of their units overseas. These


more intimate records are not Government publications,

although they contribute to the whole by covering limited

portions of the ground more closely than the main series.

The supply and verification of facts and figures for com

memoration and instruction also fall under this head.


Previous to January, 1916, there was, except in the

Medical Services, no formal means, other than War

Diaries, for preserving Canadian historical documents

relating to the War; and the diaries inevitably suffered

most when their worth was greatest. It would therefore

help to make the History more accurate and complete if

readers who can suggest corrections or furnish additional

data in the form of orders, messages, diaries or maps will

forward them for examination to the Historical Section,

Department of National Defence.


A. FORTESCUE DUGUID, Colonel,

Director of Historical Section, General Staff.


OTTAWA,


September, 1924.


CONTENTS


CHAP.


I. THE GENERAL THEME


II. PREPARATION FOR WAR


1. Origin of the Service


2. Training


3. Mobilization 14


4. Assembly and Equipment at Valcartier


III. THE FIRST CONTINGENT


1. The Adventure Overseas


2. Salisbury Plain


3. To France and Ypres


4. Festubert, Givenchy


IV. THE 2ND DIVISION


1. Mobilization


2. The Crossing


3. Training and Equipment in England


V. THE FIRST WINTER 1915-16


VI. THE FIELD AMBULANCE


1. Origin 64


2. Development 66


3. Equipment 67


VII. THE SALIENT TO THE SOMME 74


VIII. 1. THE SOMME


2. VIMT RIDGE 92


3. PASSCHENDAELE 1 01


IX. THE SURGERY OF THE FRONT 105


X. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERVICE IN THE FIELD 118


1. The Casualty Clearing Station 120


2. The Ambulance Train 125


3. Depots Medical Stores 128


4. The Regimental Medical Officer 129


XI. ADMINISTRATION 137


XII. ORGANIZATION 145


XIII. THE YEAR OF CONTROVERSY, 1916 156


XIV. THE VINDICATION OF THE SERVICE 170


XV. THE CIVILIAN AND THE SOLDIER 180


XVI. THE SERVICE IN PARLIAMENT 189


XVII. REORGANIZATION, 1917 203


1 . Headquarters 203


2. The Command Dep6t 404


3. The Orthopaedic Centre 208


4. Medical Boards and Categories 209


vii


CHAP. I" AGE


XVIII. ESTABLISHMENTS AT THE BASE AND ON THE LINES OP


COMMUNICATION 214


1. General Hospitals 214


2. Stationary Hospitals 216


3. Special Hospitals 218


4. Convalescent Hospitals 219


5. Miscellaneous Hospitals. 220


6. Minor Hospitals 222


XIX. THE ANCILLARY SERVICES 224


1. The Nursing Service 224


2. The Dental Corps 230


3. Radiography 234


4. The Mobile Laboratory 235


5. The Sanitary Section 237


6. The Naval Service 239


7. Hospital Ships and Enemy Action 239


8. The Training School 244


XX. THE MORTALITY OF WAR AND STRENGTH OF SERVICES 246


XXI. DISEASES OF WAR 255


1. Typhoid 255


2. Dysentery 256


3. Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 257


4. Jaundice 261


5. Trench Fever 262


6. Tetanus 264


7. Trench Foot 269


8. Trench Mouth 270


9. Other Infectious Diseases and Segregation Camps 271


10. Lice 274


11. Scabies 275


12. Shell-shock 276


13. Self-inflicted Wounds 278


XXII. SPECIAL ORGANS 280


1. The Eye 280


2. The Ear 283


3. Venereal Disease 287


XXIII. VARIOUS DETAILS 295


1. In Foreign Parts 295


2. Poison Gas 299


3. Rations 306


4. Pensions 309


5. Medical Museum and Descriptive Catalogue 311


XXIV. THE MEDICAL SERVICES IN CANADA 316


XXV. THE RED CROSS 334


XXVI. 1. PAY 349


2. PROMOTION 351


3. HONOURS AND REWARDS 355


4. THE ROLL OF HONOUR 365


XXVII. FROM AMIENS TO THE RHINE 378


1. The Battle of Amiens 385


2. The Battles of Arras 389


XXVIII. DEMOBILIZATION 396


INDEX 403


viii


THE MEDICAL SERVICES


CHAPTER I


THE GENERAL THEME


The medical service of an army has no existence in

itself. It is a vital part of a living fabric, performing a

peculiar function, controlling yet being controlled. Dis

severed, it decays and the main body perishes. This law

of limited existence applies to an army also. Armies never

attain to complete vigour through alliance alone. They

must become one and indivisible, animated by a single

spirit.


This hard lesson was learned late by Canadians, and

a Minister fell before the lesson was taken to heart. The

English learned it later still, in the harsh school of war

and impending defeat. The school of war closed before

the Americans had penetrated wholly into this truth. By

a final act of vicarious abnegation the British commander-

in-chief made himself subordinate in appearance to an

allied general, so that the plan and purpose of his own

original strategy might not be imperilled.


A second, and equally fatal error arose out of failure

to observe the fundamental contrast between the civil

and military function. To provide the forces is a civil

act: to train and employ those forces to the proper end

is the military business. Failure to observe this law

brought the Canadian medical service and the army itself

to the verge of disaster; and wrenched the Canadian con

stitution so severely that it has not yet recovered from the

strain.


l


2 MEDICAL SERVICES CHAP.


In the beginning these two functions, the civil and the

military, were combined in one ministerial person. It

required nearly two years of war to disclose the fault. In

the struggle for the mutual freedom of those two principles

the Minister of Militia, determined to retain this form of

bondage, first attacked that part of the army which is the

medical service, and in time became unconsciously the

abettor of those who in their anxiety to destroy the Gov

ernment, himself included, would in utter innocence of

the inevitable consequences of their conduct destroy the

army too.


There is a military spirit, and there is a civilian spirit.

The two are at enmity. All history is merely a record of

the conflict, of the attempt to "civilise" what is military;

but when this process of civilisation has accomplished its

perfect work, then the military spirit, if it has not already

perished, comes to the rescue, and civilisation is saved

once more in spite of itself. The civilian justly and with

reason fears and dislikes the "red coat," before he becomes

one himself. To hold the balance between the two, to

avoid internal tyranny and escape domination from with

out, that is the eternal task of men who would be free.

But the balance is so nice that the civilian at times will be

found striving against the soldier even when both are

straining towards a common end.


In the old wars the strife was open. Marlborough and

Wellington in purely military operations were thwarted

by the civilian spirit operating by methods which earned

the dubious designation of political. In this war also the

old, and sound, instinct was revived. The Minister of

Militia at the outbreak of war was the embodiment of

the civilian spirit, which operated too successfully by its

concealment under the uniform of the soldier. In time,

but not until the lapse of two years, it was discovered that

the dual role was impossible, and the Minister resigned.


THE GENERAL THEME


The full force of this contradictory function fell upon

the medical service. Most persons are too destitute of

knowledge for offering an opinion upon other arms and

services, cavalry, guns, infantry, and sappers. They are

usually modest enough to refrain. But all men know much

about medicine ; and some know a great deal about the civil

aspect of it, possibly more than those whose profession com

pels them to know much of military medicine too.


The medical service is of all the most sensitive to

criticism, and it suffers most from attack. Surmise, sus

picion, and innuendo find an easy lodgement in minds

suffused with the natural element of compassion. This

ready accessibility has in all wars prompted those whose

motives were of the best; it has often proved too strong

a temptation for the mingled motives of pride, chagrin, or

malice.


History deals with documents in a cold impartial

way, and there are abundant documents in the contro

versy which culminated in 1916, which ended in the

removal of the medical director, in his replacement by

an inspector-general, in the dismissal of that one, in the

temporary reinstatement of the original director, and the

final appointment of a new head under which final and

complete success was achieved. Had this attempt to

segregate the medical service succeeded, the way would

then be open for the desperate attempt to envelop the other

arms and services within specific lines.


From the moment that the Canadian authorities

were compelled by failure to abandon their preconceived

amateur notions of particularity and segregation, and con

form with the established principles of war, the organiza

tion of the forces proceeded with an ease that seemed to

be automatic. With the creation of a competent staff in

London towards the end of 1916, and a severance of the


MEDICAL SERVICES CHAP.


civil from the military function, all the elements of a med

ical service came into being and into unison with the other

arms. The Canadians were then equipped with the con

valescent camp, the orthopaedic centre, the command

depot, the hospital ship, without which general hospitals

are helpless either to complete a cure or dispose of their

patients. To supply these essentials is the business of the

staff. The medical service merely employs them after they

are provided, as the gunner uses the guns that are placed

under his hand.


Only the vaguest echoes of the controversy crossed

the Channel. The hospitals at the advanced base and on

the lines, the field ambulances, the regimental medical offi

cers continued at their quiet work. They were already safe

as an integral part of the army which they served; and the

army has peculiar methods of protecting itself.


In England the results were more marked. Discipline

and loyalty in that part of the Canadian medical service

installed in England were impaired; men became rivals

who should have been friends; the reticence and silent
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   64

Добавить в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconGeorge Washington War is not an affair of chance. A great deal of knowledge, study, and meditation is necessary to conduct it well. Frederick the Great

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconThe Great War of Recognition

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconGreat Civil War Battle West Plains

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconIn the lead up to the second world war we see a fairly strong isolationist attitude in Canada. People were focused inwards as they tried to overcome the great depression

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war icon1 New Approaches to Cold War: History and Current International Politics

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconNotes
Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. This is the coun­try's full official name since 1921 when the Irish Republic...

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconNotes
Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. This is the coun­try's full official name since 1921 when the Irish Republic...

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war icon0001 100 great problems of elementary mathematics; their history and solution\0486613488\dorrie, 1 ex

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconAssociation of Official Analytical Chemistry Official Method of Analysis

Official history of the canadian forces in the great war iconCutting the Gordian Knot of World History: Giovanni Arrighi’s model of The Great Divergence and Convergence


Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
lib.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
lib.convdocs.org
Главная страница