Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe




Скачать 213.01 Kb.
НазваниеVery little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe
страница1/4
Дата конвертации09.02.2013
Размер213.01 Kb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4
Before Enlightenment

Before Enlightenment: The Dark Ages / Middle Ages

  1. Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe.


What does the pictures drawn before the age of enlightenment say about the artists understanding of nature?
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/ouroboros_1.jpg/300px-ouroboros_1.jpgziphius eating a seal

  1. The Catholic Church believed the earth was flat and was the center of the universe. This is a geocentric theory. To challenge the theory that the earth is the center of the universe was to challenge the very existence of God himself.

http://www.sunday-school-ideas-for-new-teachers.com/image-files/cross-template.jpghttp://www.astro.umass.edu/~myun/teaching/a100/images/geocentric.jpghttp://www.spokesmanreview.com/blogs/opinion/media/r_popej6%5b1%5d.jpg

  1. Life expectancy was low, around 30. As many as 25% of children died before their 5th birthday. As many as 40% of the people born, died before they were 16. Even if they survived, life was hard for children. Most did not go to school. Instead from an early age they had to help the family by doing some work. Childhood ended early for children in the Middle Ages. In upper class families girls married as young as 12 and boys as young as 14. They did not normally choose their own marriage.


Why are children in Middle Age art so often depicted as “little or short” adults?
http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/dna/marsh_jr/album/medieval_peasant_meal.jpg http://www.medieval-spell.com/images/roles-of-women-in-the-middle-ages/roles-of-women-in-the-middle-ages-nobles.jpghttp://www.traditioninaction.org/history/histimages/a_005_09_bathingbaby.jpg


On the left, is a political cartoon referencing the inequality of the people in relationship to their government.

Take the next 15 minutes and create a political cartoon satirizing the Middle Ages political, religious, and or scientific understanding.

10 Points

Society was organized into a kind of pyramid called the feudal system with the king serving as an absolute monarchy, a divine right ruler with complete power, at the top and serfs at the bottom, who had little or no power within their government.

external image european%20feudal%20system%20chart%2006.03.jpgexternal image

Enlightenment Types of Government

  1. Democracy – The system of government in which people hold the final authority of rule.

    1. Direct Democracy / Participatory Democracy – Citizens take direct part. Past example would be Ancient Greece.

parthenonoracelk01a015

    1. Representative Democracy / Republic – Citizens chose leaders to represent them. Past example would be Ancient Rome.

arenarome_primaportaromulus%2520and%2520remus

Which Democracy is the highest evolved?

The US has a Representative Democracy System. WHY?

Logistics, Ignorance, and Apathy

Who are our executive representatives in the Federal System?

National State Local

president barack obama ted stricklandhttp://media.cleveland.com/metro/photo/susan-druckerjpg-15f65ae2b48628ad_medium.jpg



Wouldn’t it be nice to go home, log on to your computer, research issues, and vote as a nation? Under a direct or participatory democracy we would cut out the middlemen.


Pictured is President Obama leading a “virtual” town hall meeting. The New England town hall meeting is the best example of a participatory democracy where by the citizens meet, discuss, and then decide the key issues that affect them the most.


26obama2-480


Enlightenment Types of Government

  1. Monarchy – One ruler and power is inherited. burger_king_tall

Autocratic is associated with one ruler.

    1. Absolute Monarchy – one ruler with complete power. Associated with the divine right theory. Very rare in the world today.


Cameron has real power in the United Kingdom.
Constitutional Monarchy – monarchy with some form of democracy. The Monarchy is generally designed to do only ceremonial duties. In the UK, real power is found in the Parliament and with the Prime Minister.

http://www.independent.co.uk/multimedia/archive/00266/pg-14-cameron-getty_266397t.jpgdi-62elizabethiicharles_large

3. Dictator – One ruler and power is taken, generally in times of unrest.

sadam_huseinmzd17med_stalinhilter%2520and%2520stalin%25202mussolinifidel_castro

a. Totalitarian – a dictator with total control. Like Adolph Hitler

Ashkettle Analogy: Monarchy is to Dictator as Absolute Monarchy is to…

____________________________________________?

b. Oligarchy – a gang of dictators. Like China. Called in the AP world Democratic Centralism – When political elites pretend to know what the people want. They make all the real decisions.

c. Theocracy – a religious dictator. One of the best examples of a theocratic leader is the Ayatollah of Iran who holds a lot of political and religious power. Another would be the Pope of the Catholic Church in the Vatican.


http://lewandpatpolitics.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/pope-benedict1.jpg

http://riverdaughter.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/ayatollah_ali_khamenei1.jpg


Ali Khamenei Pope Benedict XVI


The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment) roughly 1700 – 1815 is the era in which intellectual, scientific and cultural life, centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy.

Reason is a statement presented in justification or explanation of a belief or action. Legitimacy means lawful, legal, and right.

Enlightenment – Science

baconhttp://blog.newsweek.com/photos/levelup/images/original/rodin_2700_s-_2200_the-thinker_2e002200_-courtesy-of-innoxiuss_2c00_-edited-by-level-up-_2800_green_2900_.aspx

European thinkers, roughly at the beginning of the 18th Century, began to try to find real reasons and rationale for the way government, people, and the world work. They relied heavily on science and the power of their own minds.


Nicolas Copernicus – (1473-1543). Polish - Copernicus claimed the Earth was round and, on an axis rotated around the sun, which was at the center of the universe. This is the heliocentric theory. He wrote a book called On Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere. (1543) His studies started with the teachings of 2nd century Alexandrian Ptolemy who thought that the planets revolved around the earth. Because his ideas were controversial in the eyes of the Catholic Church he worked in secret. He is known as the father of modern day astronomy.

Scientists Hypotheses or theories that attempt to explain a set of facts. We will conduct our own experiments.

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:0wp3bellcny3vm:http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/copernicus.jpg


http://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/components/art/tech/050525/graphic_planets.hmedium.gif

Johannes Kepler- (1571 – 1630). German - planets move in ellipses not circles (Copernicus) and those closer to the sun travel faster. He wrote On the Motion of Mars (1609).



http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:_1jxzxut9rsbom:http://www.brackwedergymnasium.de/gymbrack/projekt_deutsch/gruppe3/hp02z/images/johannes_kepler_1610.jpg




http://pesn.com/2006/07/11/9500290_scientific_method/scientific_method_binder_300.jpg

Francis Bacon- (1561-1650) English. Bacon developed scientific method that is made up of observation, generalization and experimentation. He said that the ancient authorities were not the only source of truth. He believed that through reason and experimentation, a new level of understanding might occur.



Other Enlightenment Scientists

Andreas Vesalius- (French) dissected corpses to find out about the human body.

William Harvey- (English) blood circulates through the body

Robert Hooke- discovered the cell

Robert Boyle- (Irish) Considered to be the father of modern chemistry.

Joseph Priestley- (English) discovered the existence of oxygen and of carbon dioxide

AntoineLavoisier-(French) experimented with oxygen

Issac Newton -the theory of gravity that prevented things from flying around in the earth and kept the solar system in order.



Galileo Galilei- (1564 - 1642) Italian. Galileo built a telescope and discover mountains on the moon, rings on Saturn, and moons around Jupiter. He theorized that some planets move around the sun, not the earth. He developed the law of inertia, which states that an object stays at rest or moves in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. Galileo was imprisoned for his support of the heliocentric or sun centered universe.


http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:pfwnuvrfrlhzsm:http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/images/18thc/telescope.jpg http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:7eoeadycrhhrxm:http://hankwhittemore.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/francis_bacon-rosicrucian.jpg
Enlightenment- Impact of Science on Political and Social Philosophershttp://gigalock.com/sfiab/docs/20071210_scientificmethod-t.pnghttp://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:cbnr2l1188qwem:http://library.thinkquest.org/08aug/02501/galileo.arp.300pix.jpg

Natural Law: People began to think that nature was run by a series of laws. This in turn caused many to believe that society could be run by a series of understandable laws or a natural law. This was defined as a universal moral law that could be studied by applying reason. Natural rights are rights that exist for all humans from birth.

As England began to struggle with a civil war, those who believed that the king should have absolute power and the people the kings governed, came at odds. Two philosophers lined up on either side of the issue: Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. These two men writings and thoughts led indirectly to both the English Civil War and the American Revolution.

We ban together because life without government is nasty.

Thomas Hobbes (15881679) John Locke (16321704)


Thomas Hobbes said that once you create a government, you must submit to its complete authority. No questions asked.

Leisure is the mother of philosophy
Leviathon Two Treatises on Government


John Locke said that government has authority, but the government could never take away your life, liberty, and property.
hobbes locke


Hobbes philosophy worked well with Absolute Monarchies in that Hobbes called for little freedoms for people. Instead, it was a fairly simplistic notion that life without government was short nasty and brutish. We needed to organize ourselves in order to make life better.

The life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short …because the purpose of the commonwealth is peace, and the sovereign has the right to do whatever he thinks necessary for the preserving of peace and security and prevention of discord, therefore the sovereign may judge what opinions and doctrines are averse; who shall be allowed to speak to multitudes; and who shall examine the doctrines of all books before they are published.” Leviathan 1651

Locke agreed with Hobbes in that citizens needed government. However, he was more inclined to provide individuals with rights that could never be taken away. The right to life, freedom, and the things we own.
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:vstviikkj3ak9m:http://pages.pomona.edu/~mjg14747/033-2006/pix/hobbes.jpg


"To properly understand political power and trace its origins, we must consider the state that all people are in naturally. That is a state of perfect freedom of acting and disposing of their own possessions and persons as they think fit within the bounds of the law of nature. People in this state do not have to ask permission to act or depend on the will of others to arrange matters on their behalf. The natural state is also one of equality in which all power and jurisdiction is reciprocal and no one has more than another. It is evident that all human beings – as creatures belonging to the same species and rank and born indiscriminately with all the same natural advantages and faculties – are equal amongst themselves.” Two Treaties of Government 1689
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:5uwd_k_y2_lumm:http://api.ning.com/files/ysfmffhny6*shts-sgxjdockm7wi0nze3tux-tnpzue75-zcvf3bpbse85x6-oxcjlsdo1r97g3mdrmwgkzropvvmuaavajx/john_locke.jpg


We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,” The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson 1776

Which philosopher do you think the American Revolutionaries favored?
port-jefferson



Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650). French. Descartes is sometimes referred to as the father of modern philosophy. He doubted everything except his own existence that he proved with the quote: “I think, therefore I am,” in Latin, “Cogito Ergo Sum.” This is reason in action.
Enlightenment – Other Political / Social Philosophers



Francois Marie Arouet AKA Voltaire (1694 - 1778). French. A writer, philosopher, and playwright who used his wit and talent to advocate for civil liberties such as freedom of speech. His famous quote is “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” He wrote a book called the Candide in which he satirizes absolute monarchists, nobles, and society as a whole. “Superstition is to religion what astrology is to astronomy, the mad daughter of a wise mother. These daughters have too long dominated the earth.”

http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:opanhxmhbktj9m:http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/d/fotos/descartes.jpg


Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778). Swiss. He believed that man is essentially good, and that governments and society corrupts them. A return to nature could cure these problems. He also believed that the power to rule belonged to the people who had the right to rise up and take it away. He questioned whether reason was the means of enlightenment. Rather, he thought it was more instinct. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in shackles.”


http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:amfmv9g-tnpx1m:http://academic.shu.edu/honors/voltaire.jpg


Denis Diderot (1713 – 1784). French. Diderot is a philosopher, art critic, and writer, however, he is best known for creating the encyclopedia published in 1751. He had hatred for the autocratic rule of the monarchies. “Man will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest.” Salons were gatherings of intellects who met to share their reason and knoweldge. Documents like Diderot’s allowed this to occur and the encyclopedia fostered the Salons and reason.

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:4trtlrnm7pnp-m:http://homepage.newschool.edu/het//profiles/image/rousseau.gif

http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ti8lrstiv7p8gm:http://adlitteram.free.fr/portraits/diderot.jpg


Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804). Prussian. Kant believed in the idea of testing reality but believed that God, religion, and beauty lived outside this idea and while they existed could not be tested and proved like other physical things. Proving and defining our existence is called metaphysics. “All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason.”

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/images/00010371_immanuel%20kant.jpg


Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 – 1797) English. Mary Wollstonecraft was a philosopher, writer, feminist, and activist. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Wollstonecraft would be a foundational thinker for those women who would favor women’s suffrage in the 1800’s and 1900’s around the world.


Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de Montesquieu (1689 - 1755). French. Montesquieu is given credit for creating the separation of power and the concept that no branch of government can become too powerful. This is what American Democracy and our Constitution is model after.

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:tmifneomr2afem:http://www.rationalatheist.com/assets/biopics/baron.png

http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ty1e-9txrg93ym:http://thebsreport.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/mary-shelley1.jpg

Enlightened monarchies and how they were affected by the enlightenment philosophers


King Joseph II (1741 – 1790). Austria. King Joseph II was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He abolished serfdom within his own country of Austria. His mother, Queen Marie Theresa greatly expanded the rights serfs before he abolished serfdom.

King Fredrick II of Prussia (1712 – 1786). Prussian. King Fredrick the II was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He was a correspondent of Voltaire, with whom the king had an intimate friendship. Fredrick II attempted to provide and educate his citizens. “The greatest and noblest pleasure which we have in this world is to discover new truths, and the next is to shake off old prejudices.”
http://www.kronoskaf.com/syw/images/6/62/frederick_ii.jpg

http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:xyzgsinjjuknzm:http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/05/10605-004-974df622.jpg

Enlightenment’s Affect on Art or Classicism

Classicism is an art movement inspired around enlightenment and centered on order and reason. The art, music, architecture and styles are captured and refined around the spirit of the ancients.

Architecture – Classicism Architecture uses symmetry and math to create simple, but dignified buildings. Thomas Jefferson, inspired by the enlightenment, modeled his own home in Monticello after the classicism movement. This would later serve as the inspiration for the many of the buildings in Washington DC. Much of Classicism goes back to Greek and Roman Architecture for motivation.

Monticello White House US Capital Grand Theatre, FRA

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:i1asstkv8wmt1m:http://forums.klipsch.com/forums/storage/9/1273827/monticello.jpg http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:41gncpf1t5adnm:http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/washington-dc/images/s/washington-dc-white-house-s.jpg see full size image see full size image

Drama / Writing –Looked back to the classical Greek and Roman authors but maintained their devotion to reason. Classicism writers often relied more on form and style over content.


see full size image



"If everyone were clothed with integrity, if every heart were just, frank, kindly, the other virtues would be well-night useless, since their chief purpose is to make us bear with patience the injustice of our fellows." (from Le Misanthrope, 1666)

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ol14h1fni92tmm:http://www.sctheatre.org/dacogrfx/moliere.jpg

Celia

Celia, we know, is sixty-five,
Yet Celia's face is seventeen;
Thus winter in her breast must live,
While summer in her face is seen.

How cruel Celia's fate, who hence
Our heart's devotion cannot try;
Too pretty for our reverence,
Too ancient for our gallantry!



Alexander Pope – Poet – 1688 – 1744 Moliere – Playwright – 1622 – 1673


Art – Classicism of art focused on realistic and simplistic styles and colors of blues, yellows and reds. The themes generally centered on Roman and Greek stories of antiquity.

David – Artist – 1748 – 1825 Cupid and Psyche 1817 CMA Death of Socrates 1787 Leonidas at Thermopylae 1814


http://blogs.phillynews.com/inquirer/flickgrrl/leonidas_at_thermopylae_detail_1814_xx_louvre_paris_france.jpg

http://spad1.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/death-of-socrates.jpg

http://www.frick.org/assets/images/exhibitions/cleveland/cleveland_05_david_600.jpg

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:cstolqsz5450jm:http://pages.slc.edu/~ebj/avp-08/arnheim-images/color-chapter/jacques-louis-david.jpg






Music


Music – Classicism within music focused on classical elements such as balance, contrast, and refined expression of emotion. It also ushered in a new era of music within Europe because people began to attend concerts for entertainment.



http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:uveu0vwh0zmapm:http://www.bayarea.net/~kins/aboutme/bach/jsb_bio_arton/bachat35.jpg


Air from Water Music

Click to hear!

http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:xpw5pw70gzyrwm:http://www.kbaq.org/music/thisweek/20091220/handel.jpg


Little Fugue in G” Minor


Click to hear!

http://mrclare.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/mozarts-requiem-mass-in-d-minor-k-626.jpg


"Confutatis" from Requiem


Click to hear!
Mozart 1756 – 1791 “Confutatis” from Requiem Handel 1685 – 1759 “Air from Water MusicBach 1685 – 1750 “Little Fugue in G”




The English Civil War


http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:wghfowbf9ciqrm:http://uwlib5.uwyo.edu/blogs/dustyshelves/files/2008/02/union-jack2.jpg

The Enlightenment ideas lead to discourse in Europe and North America. People were no longer content to forfeit their freedoms and rights to Divine Right, absolute monarchies. The citizenry, inspired by the writings of the enlightenment philosophers, and the reason of their own mind, began to demand change.
.


  1   2   3   4

Добавить в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconForum for Understanding: Science (Discussion about medicine and culture)

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconAchievements during the Muslim Rule and the Middle Ages

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconKaps (to take, grasp or hold) The world’s largest enclosed body of water by area is the Caspian Sea. This inland sea

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconArctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера
Мир коренных народов” (Indigenous Peoples’ World), the official periodical of raipon (Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of...

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconArctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера
Мир коренных народов” (Indigenous Peoples’ World), the official periodical of raipon (Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of...

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe icon1992. Virtual Reality: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and United

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconLoch Ness Monsters and Raining Frogs: The World’s Most Puzzling Mysteries Solved

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconHi-Tech and Alternative Medicine: The Role of the New Middle-Class in the Globalisation of Culture

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconMarcus Textor
«Titanium in Medicine: Material Science, Surface Science, Engineering, Biological Responses and Medical Applications»

Very little understanding of the world and how it operates. Science and medicine were very limited in their use. Mysticism and superstitions ruled during the Middle Ages. Around 2/3rds of the population was illiterate. Witches, Sea Monsters, and Dragons were reality to the peoples of Europe iconCrustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae from a continental slope population in the western Mediterranean Sea based on time-lapse video recordings


Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
lib.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
lib.convdocs.org
Главная страница