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DESIGN PROJECT 2010 AMPHIBIOUS FIRE FIGHTER AIRCRAFT
This report is mainly concern with the design of amphibious aircraft. Now a day many designers get involved in the design of aircraft in order to avoid the sophistication and to improve the performance of the present level aircraft by using the new technologies. The main aim of the design is to satisfy the future needs and to withstand in the present market.
American aviation pioneer and inventor Glen Hammond Curtiss is mainly known as the father of the flying boat and also developed the first amphibian. But hi earliest attempt to fly an aircraft off the water- the float equipped “Loon” in 1908-ended in a dismal failure. The first successful water take off was made by Henry Fabre at martigues, France, on March 28, 1910, in a float equipped aircraft named le canard. Glen Curtiss did subsequently becomes the first American airman to accomplish both a water take off and landing when he flew his D “Hydro-Aeroplane” from saint Diego bay on January 26, 1911.
As early aviation pioneers discovered, creating a flying boat was not a simple matter of grafting part of an airplane onto a boat hull. In order to achieve flight from the water and land on it again, a flying boat demanded a unique mixture of design characteristic, it had to combine all of the aerodynamic features of a landplane (i.e., lift + thrust over weight + drag) with a planning hull that would permit to accelerate to flying speed. At the same time, the hull needed to be seaworthy, manoeuvrable, and stable on the water. The invention of the hull step demonstrated that hydrodynamic lift could be used to reduce drag to the point where flight was possible.
2. Background research
2.1. Amphibious aircraft
Aircraft which can be takeoff from land and water is known as amphibian aircraft. The retracted wheels in the amphibious aircraft make them as an amphibian. Amphibian aircrafts are widely used in remote areas where lakes were more plentiful than airports. Today the conventional wheeled undercarriage is replaced by the hull fuselage design. The hull fuselage design makes the aircraft floating on the water. On the other hand the conciliation to allow the aircraft to fly both in land and water is resulted in added weight and complexity in the shape. The amphibian aircraft must have a cruise speed lower than the normal conventional land based aircraft.
The arpeggio was developed in the winter 1911 to operate in both seas as well as in land. Glenn Curtiss demonstrated effectively on February 25, 1911. After certain modifications the aircraft has been turned over to the U.S. naval aircraft on June 30. The modifications like retractable landing gear creature added to the aircraft.
The first U.S. navy aircraft the a-1 has the unique features like,
Figure 1: The U.S. navy aircraft
Since, from the age of 1920s amphibious aircraft has been built in the world.
They are classified as,
2.2.1. Float planes
These are a specific type of seaplanes that have the aspect of floats. Floats are mounted as a replacement for wheels. Now–a–days the modern aircraft allow the aircraft to operate in the field of both lands as well as in water.
French built the first float plane in 1910. During the world war 1 and world war 2 the float planes are most commonly employed in various relevance of bombing runs and air sea rescue . Float planes are used in the remote areas where landing on strips is not accessible but landing on water is accessed.
2.2.2. Flying boats
It is different from float plane on several aspects. Flying boats have the water tight fuselage in which they act as a tight hull of a boat. They often provide features of undersized floats attached near the wings to stabilize the aircraft on the water.
During the age of 1900s the flying boats achieve their popularities. To a great extent similar to float boats. During the world war 1 and world war 2 the flying boats are most commonly employed in various relevance of bombing runs and air sea rescue. It serves as a cargo and passenger transport transversely the Atlantic. Now- a day’s flying boats are employed for the fire fighting of forest fires. Since flying boats hold a heavier payload. Most flying boats are water tankers.
Amphibious planes provide an opportunity to operate in two ways. They are,
Float planes become amphibious by adding the wheels attached to the floats .flying boats become amphibious by adding retractable wheels. By this way the aircraft can be used both on land as well as in water. Many airplanes are served for special purposes appliances. It can be applicable to various roles in rural areas and multi functional usages.
2.2.3. Grumman Corporation
They introduced a light utility amphibious aircrafts like
Figure 2: Goose Grumman widgeon
Figure 3: The goose aircraft types.
Figure 4: Goose mallard
These aircrafts are widely used for civilian purposes. When the time period increases the need for the purpose of amphibian aircraft is also increased for the military of United States. The military of United States was in the need of various services such as anti sub marine patrol, rescue of sea - air services.
2.2.4. Pure flying boat
The notion of the military amphibious aircraft was successful by the pay Catalina. Later the second world war thousands of hu-16 albatross are required by the united states air force. Amphibian aircraft are most commonly useful in the regions of northern Canada and Alaska. Now – a day’s most of the manufactures in the world produce amphibian aircraft.
2.2.5. Canadair cl-215
The cl-215 is famous for having many nicknames in different countries. For example, they are called as “Canadair’s” in Croatia, Greece, France, Serbia and Italy, whereas they are called as “ducks” in western Canada. They are also called as “scoopers” by many other aircraft operators. “Super turboprop versions of these aircraft are called “super scoopers”, having increased performance. This aircraft fills its tanks by gliding over water bodies like lakes and rivers or ponds. The water is sometimes mixed with additives, for direct attack of wildfires and structure protection. With water sources close to fires, cl-215s have delivered 75-125 loads of water in a single day in support of fire fighting efforts. The aircraft can fill its tank of liquid capacity 1400 us gallon in ten seconds at a speed of 75-80 knots/hour.
In addition to its primary role as a water bomber, the cl-215 is capable of several configurations such as maritime patrol and search and rescue and thus can be called as a multitalented aircraft.