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|LIST OF ABSTRACTS|
Policy-making for Waterbound Industrial Estates: Key Issues and Critical Success Factors. An Empirical Study for Flanders.
Ann Verhetsel, Tom Pauwels, Eddy Van de Voorde and Thierry Vanelslander
This paper takes a two-fold starting point. On the one hand, increasing environmental awareness as well as economic efficiency of inland navigation make the latter hinterland transport mode more attractive, which levels up demand for waterbound industrial estates. On the other hand, public policy wants to create sufficient space for economic activities, ensuring optimal spatial and functional allocation, and taking into account future trends and developments. In view of its welfare-economic concerns, it is imminent for a government to match both pressures. This paper tries to assist in this matching process by qualitatively assessing for Flanders the impact of barge transport demand on waterbound industrial estate demand, and by identifying a number of critical success factors for successful waterbound land allocation.Two main research hypotheses are put forward. First, it is stated that demand for waterbound industrial estates can be expected to further rise, but that demand is conditional upon a large number of market factors. Second, it is stated that a limited number of critical elements can be identified which will be crucial for the ability to match demand for and supply of waterbound industrial estates, especially factors relating to logistics chains integration. In the methodology, first, an analysis is made of the waterbound estate product, its suppliers and users, and relevant policy and society developments. Micro as well as macro trends are included. Second, a SWOT analysis is made of the current market for waterbound industrial estates. Third, a number of scenarios are derived along which the future waterbound estate market can be expected to evolve, taking into account policy measures that may be taken. Finally, critical success and failure factors are derived in determining an optimal policy. We report also the first results of a quantitative analysis. A bottom-up methodology is followed: from an inventory of how much industrial and logistic surface various waterbound companies actually use, a forecast of the future demand of waterbound industrial estates was made based on new forecasts of inland shipping flows.
Barge versus Road: How the Inland Port of Brussels Aids to Reduce the Negative Impact on the Urban Environment.
Tom van Lier and Cathy Macharis
This paper examines to what extent external costs are avoided by using the inland port of Brussels, located close to the center of the city. This creates the opportunity to open up Brussels for the transport of goods via inland waterway. The port contributes thus to a more sustainable mobility since transporting these goods by barges represents a reduction in the number of trucks on the road. On the basis of tonnages loaded and unloaded in the year 2007, the external costs were calculated for the transport of these tonnages via 1) inland navigation (real situation) and 2) road transport (hypothetical situation), the difference leading to an estimate of the avoided external costs. This demanded the clear definition of the relevant external costs and the determination of appropriate key figures. An externality requiring special attention was congestion, a specific phenomenon within the transport sector where traffic participants hinder one another, but little or no extra costs are imposed on the rest of society. Therefore, differentiation for road transport was based mainly on road type and congestion levels. Clusters were formed based on origin and destination of goods flows, allocating 98,5% of goods to a specific source or destination. Since inland navigation often requires road transport before loading or after unloading to reach origin or destination, an average road transport of 20 km was added to the inland waterway scenarios, but even than cost savings remained significant: 7,4 million € (without congestion) and 19,1 million € (with moderate congestion) on a Belgian level. Introducing more severe congestion scenarios more than doubled the external cost savings of inland waterway transport compared to road transport. Looking at a European level leads to a further increase in cost savings, which is particularly relevant since some important externalities are cross-border phenomena, (e.g. climate change).
Value Driven Discourse: An Analysis of the Consumer-Oriented, Manufacturer-Produced Vehicle Information
John S. Ridout and Anne E. Dunning
Individuals view the vehicles they drive as reflections of themselves, but the aggregate composition of the private vehicle fleet is reflected in societal issues such as air quality, public safety, and ecological health. Marketing that romanticizes private vehicles based on desirable lifestyles, images, and values also contributes to increasing societal dependency on automobiles by instilling the role of private vehicles in consumers’ minds. When people communicate, in this case between an industry and consumer, they “tap into commonly held views and ways of thinking about a topic” (Guiver, 2006, 235). In turn, the communication itself reinforces a mutual assumption that views and ways of thinking about private vehicles are commonly held. [hrt]The objective of this research was to propose a link between automobile dependency and marketed images of private vehicles. While existing literature on automobile dependency has focused on physical land use and infrastructure issues (Kenworth et al. 1999, Zhang 2006), this research has added a new dimension to the characterization of automobile dependency by offering consumer values as a secondary factor. [hrt]To address this objective, investigators used critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 1995) to examine differences between the values and lifestyles presented to consumers of three types of vehicles: sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), hybrid and fuel-efficient vehicles, and SUVs that were also gas or electric hybrids or otherwise met requirements for fuel efficiency set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data for this analysis came from manufacturer brochures provided to consumers online or in paper form. The study focused on brochures for U.S. markets from three major private vehicle manufacturers: General Motors (USA), Toyota (Japan), and Volkswagen (Germany). [hrt]Research findings showed that vehicles, particularly SUVs and fuel-efficient vehicles, were presented differently to the consumer. Industry advertizing has reinforced or perhaps in some ways established an automobile-dependent lifestyle as part of the American culture and values that are socially and physically dominated by a single mode of transport. The land use changes necessary cannot be approach without first addressing the values reinforced in popular media. The findings open new avenues for considering how to plan for transport. Rather than focus exclusively on physical land use and infrastructure issues, planners can address issues of communication to explore alternate strategies to address the use of alternative automobile technology and multimodal transportation options. [hrt]Fairclough, N. (1995b). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. New York: Longman. [hrt]Guiver, J.W. (2007). Modal talk: discourse analysis of how people talk about bus and car travel. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41(3), 233-248. [hrt]Kenworthy, Jeffrey R., Felix Laube, Peter Newman. (1999) An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, 1960-1990Author: Boulder, Colo: University Press of Colorado.[hrt]Zhang M. (2006) ‘Travel Choice with No Alternative: can land use reduce automobile dependence?’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 25: 311-326.
The Influence of the Built Environment on Vehicle and Fuel Type Choice. Evidence from the Netherlands
Transport planning has got a new dimension in recent years: to keep driving with highly polluting and energy-wasting vehicles within acceptable limits. The recent interest for vehicle type choice started in the US, with the focus on light-duty trucks (LTDs), such as pickups, sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and minivans. Although in Europe, the proportion of LTDs is much smaller, the number of SUVs and minivans (MPVs, multi-purpose vehicles) is increasing all the time, resulting in a debate about possibilities to ban them from the city centres. Likewise, the debate extends to diesel-powered cars (emissions of soot and nanoparticles) and compact, hybrid and LPG-powered cars (promising). For instance, in the Netherlands, owners of a hybrid car receive tax reduction. So far, the academic attention for vehicle type choice has largely been limited to the US, and fuel type has not been investigated at all in relation to the built environment. The aim of this paper is to empirically test the influence of the built environment on both vehicle type and fuel type, controlled for travel behaviour, company car holdings, sociodemographics and attitudes towards cars. Data were used from two household surveys in the Netherlands. One survey (n=298) was conducted in 2008 in the region of Delft in the most populated part of the country, the other in 2005 in the less populated middle of the country, in Amersfoort and suburbs (n=3,979) (Bohte et al., 2007) Multinomial and nested logit models were estimated. The results show clear variation in household car holdings, vehicle types and fuel types between neighbourhood types. In general, the less urbanized a neighbourhood is, the more cars a household owns, the bigger the cars are and the more often diesel and LPG are used. However, the combination of vehicle types within one household, company cars and residential self-selection play a role, too.
Second-best Congestion Tolling in the Bottleneck Model with Continuous Heterogeneity in Value of Time
Vincent van den Berg and Erik T. Verhoef
It can be important to adequately incorporate heterogeneity of road users when studying the effects of transport policies. Previous studies have for example found that ignoring heterogeneity can cause substantial biases in the calculated welfare effects of policies. This paper analyses the welfare effects of second-best congestion pricing in a bottleneck model with a continuous distribution of the value of time. Different from the homogeneous-users bottleneck model, under heterogeneity the generalized prices do not stay the same when a first-best public toll introduced, and the low value of time drivers loose and the high value of time drivers gain. Therefore, congestion tolling also has large distributional effects. We find that in a bottleneck model the welfare increase of first-best tolling increases with the amount of heterogeneity in the value of time distribution. The relative efficiency of a welfare maximizing public pay-lane decreases with heterogeneity. This is the converse find of the previous literature: other studies, using static flow congestion, concluded that the relative efficiency of a pay-lane increases with heterogeneity. Our results suggest that the effect of heterogeneity on the effects of policies also depends on the type of congestion considered.
TRANSPORT AND GLOBAL WARMING
A Fiscal System in Favor of More Environmental Friendly Cars: Towards First Best Solutions Laurence Turcksin, Cathy Macharis, and Bart Jourquin
The current vehicle passenger transport system is confronted with a rising impact on the environment. Transport pricing policies can be implemented in order to tackle this important problem meanwhile stimulating the purchase and use of more environmental friendly vehicles. Pricing policies are however only effective if they can induce the right behavioural changes. This effectiveness can be measured by means of price elasticities. It is recommended to take price elasticities into account in the development phase of a new pricing measure since it provides insights in future behavioural changes. It is also important to work with the most appropriate elasticity in the impact assessment of pricing measures. Therefore, an extensive overview of current transportation elasticities will first of all be provided, followed by some concrete cases from abroad. Secondly, a case study of Flanders will be elaborated in which the impact of a tax reform in function of the environmental performance of cars will be investigated. Here, it will be measured if this tax reform can evoke a shift in the composition of the Belgian car fleet towards a more environmental whole. Additionally, the impact of this tax reform on the budgetary receivings on the long term will be quantified, taking into consideration the technical evolution of the vehicles, the introduction period and the consumer behaviour. It has been found out that a tax reform, based on the environmental performance of cars, could evoke a shift in consumer behaviour towards more environmental friendly vehicles causing a clear impact on the fiscal revenues.
Dealing with Climate Change – the Need for Organisational Integration
The challenge posed by climate change requires joined-up thinking and collaboration between otherwise disparate entities, as can be seen when confronting transport-related emissions. Yet conventional forms of decision making may actually be prohibiting the progress of institutions to provide these reductions. Whilst there is emerging evidence to suggest that institutional measures are being introduced to tackle the climate impact of cars, perhaps the most fundamental missing link is better integration of administrative systems. By considering these issues in the context of California’s Senate Bill 375, passed in October 2008, this paper serves to highlight some of the shortcomings within existing bureaucratic structures, which may prevent the delivery of such positive interventions.
The Impact of Climate Change on Transport Networks
Piet Rietvelt and Mark Koetse
This paper presents a survey of the empirical literature on the effects of climate change and weather conditions on transport networks. Despite mixed evidence on many issues, several patterns can be observed. On a global scale especially shifts in tourism and agricultural production due to increased temperatures may lead to shifts in passenger and freight transport. The predicted rise in sea levels and the associated increase in frequency and intensity of storm surges and flooding incidences may furthermore be some of the most worrying consequences of climate change, especially for coastal areas. Climate change related shifts in weather patterns may also affect infrastructure disruptions. Clear patterns are that precipitation affects road safety; it increases accident frequency but decreases accident severity. Precipitation also increases congestion, especially during peak hours. These effects underline the importance of the concept of network vulnerability in view of climate related themes. Furthermore, an increased frequency of low water levels may considerably increase costs of inland waterway transport having implications for freight transport. Despite these valuable insights, the net impact of climate change on generalised costs of the various transport modes are uncertain and ambiguous, with a possible exception for inland waterway transport.
Moving Around Cities
Pedestrian Trip Analysis in Transport Interfaces
Lopes Farias, Álvaro Costa, Gonçalo Gonçalves, Sandra Melo, and Ana Faria
Transport interfaces are important poles of commuting and can influence pedestrian movements. The design and structure of interfaces, as well as the characteristics of the transport networks integrated on the interface, can affect pedestrian flows efficiency along its movement segments. More efficient multi-modal interfaces lead to a reduction of the waiting and total travel times of commuters and thus, increase the importance of studying the causal relation interface-pedestrian.[hrt]The paper describes a specific simulation tool (INTRSIM) built to analyse the effects of measures like layout and frequency changes or new access equipments in the way pedestrian flows perform. The simulation tool was calibrated with the support of empirical input data from two major Portuguese multimodal interfaces (Cais do Sodré – Lisbon and Campanhã - Porto). [hrt]The comparison of empirical data for different pedestrian levels of service and moving times along the segments of the interface with indicators from scientific literature (Fruin, 1971), (Fujiyama and Tyler, 2004) and (TCQSM, 2003) corroborate the speed of pedestrian flows to respective levels of services for the analysed segments: walkways, stairways, turnstiles, queuing, waiting areas and escalators. [hrt]Through a Monte Carlo modelling simulation process, those values were then used and tested with real input data. [hrt]The validity of INTRSIM was later complemented with two additional segments, without scientific comparable measurements in scientific literature: fare gates and ticketing booths. To achieve reliable data, 3607 measurements over 6 Portuguese transport interfaces were carried out and the statistical analysis so far is encouraging. The analysis revealed that INTRSIM is a valid tool to simulate pedestrian movements in interfaces, which includes new and innovative features on the analysis of pedestrian flows.
В состав политико-управленческих дисциплин включают политический анализ (policy analysis), теорию принятия политических решений (policy...