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|Figure 2-7: Total female vs. male enrolment in primary schools |
Source: National Bureau of Statistics
Figure 2-9: Percentage distribution of male versus female working population by employment status
Source: National Bureau of Statistics
Economic development cannot be fully realised without programmes that seek to reduce poverty, especially those that empower the people by increasing their access to factors of production, especially credit. NV20:2020 aims for 99 million adequately equipped and gainfully employed citizens that are engaged in productive activities and wealth generation. This has implications for micro financing and acquisition of other productive assets/ means of production. The aggregate credit facilities in Nigeria account for only 0.2% of the GDP and less than 1% of the total credit to the economy. Put graphically, the formal financial system in the country provides services to only about 35%of the economically active population while the remaining 65%9 are excluded from access to financial services and are served only by the informal financial sector.
Currently, there are over 898 Micro-finance banks in Nigeria, which the CBN enlisted as microfinance institutions.10 Out of the 898 in the country, Lagos accounts for 150 microfinance banks, with concentration also in other major key markets and locations.11. There is still limited outreach to the poor. For example, of the estimated 70 million people in need of micro credit, CBN statistics recorded that 600,000 clients had access in 2001, and this grew to about 1.5 million in 200312.
Figure 2-10: Total number of microfinance banks by zone
Source: Syminvest ( Microfinance Investment Intelligence)
NV20:2020 strategy to guarantee accessibility, effectiveness and reliability of micro-finance institutions will require regular supervision and declaration of financial records and ensuring increased access to financial and market performance records. A major policy thrust will be to encourage cash flow consideration over collateral in SME lending, so that a larger percentage of business-owners, entrepreneurs and new entrants can benefit from the Micro-credit Fund.
Consequently, in order to provide adequate access to micro-credit by the year 2020 and ensure that the citizens actualise the benefits and poverty is reduced to the minimum, the following strategic initiatives must be executed:
Sports and recreation beyond providing relaxation also create opportunities for people to participate in physical activities for fun and health, through organised competitions and events, while at the same time helping to address and tackle social issues through positive engagement. When applied effectively, sports, recreation and entertainment programmes promote social integration and foster tolerance, helping to reduce tension and generate dialogue. In addition, if well harnessed, they have the potential to create business opportunities and employment, thereby enhancing income and reducing poverty.
For the actualisation of NV20:2020, there is a need to promote awareness amongst Nigerians on the critical role of physical and emotional fitness in general wellbeing, as well as put in place necessary infrastructure to encourage mass participation in sports, recreation and entertainment. The key policy thrust for infrastructural development will be to encourage private sector partnership in the provision and maintenance of sports infrastructure and development.
To achieve a culture of entertainment and recreation by the year 2020, investments will be channelled towards the development of adequate sporting and recreational facilities through the rehabilitation and modernisation of existing sporting and recreational facilities (stadia, parks, gymnasia, racecourses, courts etc) and establishment of new facilities at the federal, state, and LGA levels as well as in all primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. The youth will be the main driver in the various sporting and entertainment activities. Research shows that engaging young people during their free time is an effective way of keeping them off drugs, crime and irresponsible sexual behaviour.
Another focus is to improve the level of women’s participation in sporting activities. The low involvement of women in sports is not due to the lack of interest in sports by women but, rather, due to the long history of direct and indirect systemic forms of discrimination as well as many other problems that women have to contend with. If Nigeria is to fulfil her aspiration of being amongst the top sporting countries of the world, the issue of women participation in sports must be successfully addressed. The talent, commitment and professionalism that women can contribute to the development of Nigeria through sports are enormous. Bringing women into the mainstream of sports is an important end in itself and a key to improving the quality of life of every one.
To facilitate and promote relaxation, recreation and entertainment in Nigeria, the following strategic initiatives will be implemented:
What Will Nigeria Do Differently?: Guaranteeing the Well-being and Productivity of the People
Human development is the ultimate goal of all development efforts. Investing in human development to generate human capacity that will drive expected economic growth is critical to the attainment of NV20: 2020 aspirations. Some of the key policies for improving the wellbeing and productivity of Nigerians, bridging the gap between economic growth and human development, different from previous government policies are as follows:
1. Adopting a decentralized approach to the development and implementation of poverty reduction programmes. NV20:2020 recognizes the need for the citizens to have full ownership of poverty reduction strategies, with greater prospects that the strategies will be translated into budgets, programmes and concrete results, and will benefit the intended groups. This will ensure that federating units are able to adapt strategies to their respective circumstances, constituencies and developmental challenges.
2. Promotion of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, such as organic farming to increase the agricultural output of smallholder farmers, expansion of irrigation infrastructure and other agricultural facilities, institution of clear property rights, supporting agricultural research and development and promoting greater dissemination and adoption of appropriate technologies. This will effectively tackle food security and reduce extreme hunger and poverty.
3. Implementation of policies targeted at changing the economic role and status of women, including provision of quality education, skills acquisition and access to finance for entrepreneurship, as a critical step towards reducing the level of poverty in Nigeria.
4. Removal of the Land Use Act 1978 from the constitution and subsequent amendment with a view to developing an effective land administration system, to make land ownership available, accessible and easily transferable at affordable rates. There is need for accessible and affordable housing which is one of the most basic needs of Nigerians. This will check rapid urbanization in the country.
5. Articulate a national physical Development plan whose goal will be the achievement of balanced and sustainable development through effective integration of socio-economic and physical development plans. Such integration should seek to accommodate spatial coordination of sectoral development; rationalise national spatial planning for economic efficiency and national competitiveness and; secure spatial, environmental quality and diversity.
6. Formulation and implementation of an educational policy of at least 12 years of continuous education (formal/ informal) by all children up to the age of 18 with particular focus on technical/vocational education or training thereafter as a clear strategy for building the necessary enterprising and self-reliant capabilities sufficient for sustaining livelihoods and national development. The NV20:2020 seeks to ensure that all boys and girls irrespective of ethnicity, gender or disability complete a full course of basic education - 12 years of formal education consisting of 3 years of Early Childhood Care Development and Education (ECCDE), 6 years of primary schooling and 3 years of junior secondary schooling. This should be followed by at least 3 years of vocational training (informal/formal education) or senior secondary schooling.
Факультет государственного управления, Ломоносовский пр-т, д. 27, корп. 4, Москва, Россия