List of tables list of figures




Скачать 316.31 Kb.
НазваниеList of tables list of figures
страница1/11
Дата конвертации14.02.2013
Размер316.31 Kb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11
Design of Nuclear Reactor Protection Systems: Lessons from Fukushima


by

Christopher Michael Fennell Petty

An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate

Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Approved:


_________________________________________

Dr. Ernesto Guitierrez-Miravete, Project Adviser


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Hartford, Connecticut

May 2012


© Copyright 2012

by

Christopher Petty

All Rights Reserved

CONTENTS

Design of Nuclear Reactor Protection Systems: Lessons from Fukushima 1

1.Introduction / Background 16

1.1Nuclear Physics 18

1.1.1Elements & Isotopes 19

1.1.2Mass Defect & Binding Energy 20

1.1.3Nuclear Force 22

1.1.4Coulomb Force 23

1.1.5Nuclear Stability 24

1.2Uranium 28

1.3Nuclear Reactions 29

1.3.1Fission 30

1.3.2Moderation 32

1.3.3Fission Energy Release 35

1.3.4Reactor Coolant 39

2.Theory / Methodology 40

2.1Nuclear Reactors 41

2.2Boiling Water Reactors 42

2.3Pressurized Water Reactors 50

2.4Nuclear Reactor Protection Systems 58

2.4.1Pressure Protection 59

2.4.2Thermal Protection 62

2.52011 Japan Catastrophic Earthquake and Tsunami 66

2.5.1Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident 67

2.5.2Pressure Protection System Failure 68

2.5.3Thermal Protection System Failure 70

3.Discussion 71

3.1Pressure Relief Valves 72

3.1.1Pilot-Actuated Pressure Relief Valves Description 73

3.1.2Pressure Relief Valve Size Determination 76

3.1.3Pressure Relief Valves Setpoint Determination 77

3.2Operational Power History & Decay Heat 81

3.2.1Operational Power History 82

3.2.2Radioactive Decay 83

3.2.3Decay Heat Generation 84

3.2.4Decay Heat Calculation 86

3.2.5Decay Heat Removal 95

3.3Passive Decay Heat Removal 97

3.3.1Natural Circulation 99

4.Conclusions 101

5.References 103



LIST OF TABLES



LIST OF FIGURES



LIST OF EQUATIONS



LIST OF EXAMPLES


Example 1 - Mass Defect of Uranium-235.................................................................2

Example 2 - Binding Energy of Uranium-235............................................................3

Example 3 - Amount of Energy Released during Fission of Uranium-235...............13

Example 4 - Theoretical Average Decay Heat...........................................................46

Example 5 - Fissions per Second Calculation…………………………….………...47

Example 6 - Decay Heat of 7% Power.......................................................................47


NOMENCLATURE


σa absorption microscopic cross section

ABWR advanced boiling water reactor

α alpha particle

AC alternating current

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

antineutrino

A atomic mass number (number of nucleons)

amu atomic mass units

Z atomic number (number of protons)

Tc average cold leg primary coolant temperature

Th average hot leg primary coolant temperature

Tave average overall primary coolant temperature

β - beta-minus (electron) decay

β + beta-plus (positron) decay

BE binding energy

BWR boiling water reactor

BTU British Thermal Units

Ni concentration of the fission products (nuclei/cm3)

UTC Coordinated Universal Time

F Coulomb Force

λi decay constant (sec-1)

decay heat production rate

decay heat production rate from the fission products

(energy/time-cm3)

DHR decay heat removal

DOE Department of Energy

ECCS emergency core cooling system

E Energy

ε fast fission factor (~0.32 typically)

fm femtometer (1.0x10-15 meters)

σf fission microscopic cross section

γi fission yield of the fission products (nuclei/fission)

F fissions

GE General Electric

IE immediate energy released per fission, 185.6 MeV

immediate heat production rate

JST Japan Standard Time

kW-hr Kilo-Watt Hour

macroscopic thermal fission cross section for uranium-235 (cm-1)

m mass

Δm mass defect (amu)

me mass of electron (0.000548597 amu)

matom mass of nuclide (amu)

mn mass of nuetron (1.008665 amu)

mp mass of proton (1.007277 amu)

MeV Mega-Electron Volt

MWe Mega-Watt Electric (MWt * 0.33 = MWe)

MWt Mega-Watt Thermal

υ neutrino

NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission

N/S Nuclear Ship, commercial ship’s propulsion plant designator

PDHR passive decay heat removal

q1 point charge 1

q2 point charge 2

PSI pounds per square inch

PWR pressurized water reactor

ke proportionality constant

RCIC reactor core isolation cooling

Vc reactor core volume (cm3)

P reactor power (MWt)

RPI Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

RHRS residual heat removal system

σs scattering microscopic cross section

r separation distance

c speed of light

φ2 thermal neutron flux (neutrons/cm2-sec)

tf time at constant fission rate (forming time)

ts time after shutdown

total reactor heat production rate

ED,Chains useable energy released by each decay of a fission product decay chain (energy/decay)

V volume

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Добавить в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

List of tables list of figures iconList of tables list of figures

List of tables list of figures iconList of tables list of figures

List of tables list of figures iconList of tables list of figures

List of tables list of figures iconList of tables list of figures

List of tables list of figures iconList of Tables and Figures

List of tables list of figures iconComplete reference list for text and tables, including Data Depository tables, to accompany Fall 2010

List of tables list of figures iconList of figures

List of tables list of figures iconList of tables

List of tables list of figures iconList of Figures

List of tables list of figures iconList of Figures


Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
lib.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
lib.convdocs.org
Главная страница