Emissions Inventory (leci) 2003 Methodology Manual (hereafter, Manual) contains information supplied by the Environment Group's Energy Team, Greater London




НазваниеEmissions Inventory (leci) 2003 Methodology Manual (hereafter, Manual) contains information supplied by the Environment Group's Energy Team, Greater London
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London Energy and CO2 Emissions Inventory 2003


Methodology Manual


April 2006

The London Energy and CO2 Emissions Inventory (LECI) 2003 Methodology Manual (hereafter, Manual) contains information supplied by the Environment Group's Energy Team, Greater London Authority (GLA), and all such information is supplied without liability for errors or omissions.


The LECI Manual is updated annually and any improvements in activity data, emission factors and/or methodologies are incorporated into the latest version of the LECI Manual. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the contents of the LECI 2003 Manual are factually correct, the GLA does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of its contents and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of the LECI 2003 Manual.


The LECI 2003 Manual may be reproduced by those individuals or organisations it is given to by the GLA in whole or part for research purposes or for assessing or modelling energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the Greater London area subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgement of the source. Reproduction for any other purposes requires the written permission of the Environment Group, Policy and Partnerships Directorate, Greater London Authority, City Hall, The Queen's Walk, London SE1 2AA.


Corresponding Author:


Julius Mattai

Environmental Data Manager

The Environment Group

Policy and Partnerships Directorate

Greater London Authority

City Hall

The Queen's Walk

London SE1 2AA


Telephone: 020 7983 4492

Fax: 020 7983 4706

Email: julius.mattai@london.gov.uk

TABLE OF CONTENTS


List of Tables



List of Figures


  1. Introduction


In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of regional and local government in contributing to energy efficiency improvements1, and hence reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, therefore interest in local estimates of energy/fuel consumption and CO2 emissions has significantly increased. The London Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Inventory (LECI) is an annually updated database of seamlessly related electronic files that hold geographically referenced datasets (at London borough and 1km grid levels) of energy consumption and the resulting CO2 emissions for the Greater London. The compilation and reporting of the LECI confirms the London Mayor’s commitment to compile and make available comprehensive data on the pattern of energy consumption and the resulting CO2 emissions in local areas to assist those using local energy consumption and CO2 emissions accounting as a tool in developing energy efficiency and CO2 emissions reduction strategies and for raising awareness of greenhouse gas2 emissions as an issue and effectively inform policy development. As part of the Mayor’s energy policy commitments2 to make available data on London’s energy supply (and associated CO2 emissions) and use, the LECI (i.e., LECI 2000, for the base year 1999/2000) was first compiled in June 2003 to develop and monitor progress against the objectives and targets set in the Draft London Mayor’s Energy Strategy. In April 2006 an updated version of the LECI (i.e., LECI 2003, for the base year 2003) was compiled to monitor progress against the policy objectives set in the London Mayor’s Energy Strategy and to ensure London plays its full part in meeting the national targets.


This LECI 2003 Methodology Manual (hereafter, Manual) describes the data sources, datasets and methodologies employed by the Greater London Authority (GLA) Energy Team in compiling the LECI 2003. The Manual explains the background to the LECI 2003, data sources, datasets and estimation methodologies and discusses some of the key issues that must be taken into consideration when using the LECI 2003. The energy consumption and CO2 emission estimates presented in the LECI 2003 are not perfect and are classed as experimental and should be treated as indicative; this means that most of the estimation methodologies used in the compilation of the LECI 2003 are new and may still be subject to modification. As such the energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates in the LECI 2003 should be interpreted with caution. However, used with care they can be used in conjunction with other energy consumption and CO2 emissions tools to better understand the energy picture in the Greater London area and provide a basis for forecasting the effects of economic, environmental and legislative changes on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The LECI 2003 can also be used to provide an input to both UK and London policy-making with respect to energy consumption and CO2 emissions abatement and controls.


The Energy Team is fully committed to developing and using the latest inventory techniques in compiling and reporting the LECI. To ensure that the LECI remains relevant and responsive to changing priorities and new legislative requirements, we have undertaken a continuous improvement programme, which entails a comprehensive evaluation of each version of the LECI and its development processes and an assessment of how effectively we can meet the needs of LECI users.


The LECI 2003 compilation process entailed reviewing the previous LECI 2000 and incorporating improved methodologies, emission factors and activity datasets. We have significantly improved the quality of the energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates in the LECI by:


  • Developing clear and improved energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimation methodologies using the best and latest available scientific information.

  • Using new or improved methods for collecting and analysing energy consumption and CO2 emissions activity datasets, especially for those fuel/energy sources where the previous LECI 2000 provided little information in term of activity data and/or emission factors.

  • Employing advanced GIS, data management and spatial analytical methods for aggregating and/or disaggregating energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

  • Developing consistent, effective and transparent QA/QC procedures, including uncertainty assessment, where possible.


We have updated and fine-tuned most of the emission factors and the energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimation methodologies for road transports, rail traffic, shipping and aviation (aircrafts and airports) using datasets and methodologies from the LAEI 2003. Furthermore, the energy consumption estimation methodologies (and its related CO2 emissions) for electricity, coal, oil and renewables & wastes have changed significantly and are now derived from the newly available local energy consumption data from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Energy Statistics web site3. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions from electricity generation have been attributed to the location of the customers rather than to the location of the power stations4. The general tenet is that energy consumption and CO2 emissions are distributed according to the point of energy consumption (and its related CO2 emissions). This re-allocation of energy consumption and CO2 emissions from power stations is one of the major features of the LECI 2003 dataset. Because of the significant changes in data sources, methodologies, activity datasets and emission factors the total energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the LECI 2003 are different from the LECI 2000 figures, especially for some sectors.5


We have also significantly changed the presentational layout of the LECI, especially its database structure and documents. All aspects of energy use by the domestic sector, the principal industrial and commercial sectors, public services as well as private and public transportation have been considered and for the purpose of the LECI 2003 energy consumption (and its associated CO2 emissions) have been broadly split into three sectors (i.e., domestic, industrial and commercial, and transport6). The LECI 2003 also incorporates a number of enhancements that now provide users with simple functionality that facilitate the querying, displaying, reporting and exporting of the underlying energy consumption and CO2 emissions datasets through friendly graphical user interfaces (GUI) to a Microsoft® Excel workbook (with various Excel formats already applied to facilitate filtering by London boroughs and other geographical units). Furthermore, the LECI 2003 now provides improved and integrated links to the most common Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications (i.e., MapInfo® Professional and ArcView® GIS), ensuring that LECI 2003 users benefit from the mapping, visualisation and querying functionality offered by these GIS applications.


Although some of the data collection and analytical procedures employed in the LECI 2003 allowed variations in some phases of the energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimation processes, we have been able to address most of the procedural and data errors identified in the previous LECI (i.e., the LECI 2000). Inevitably, some degree of uncertainty surrounds some of the current LECI 2003 emission estimates due to the nature of the data sources, analysis and assumptions intrinsic to some specific energy/fuel categories and methodologies. Undoubtedly, some of these assumptions unfortunately introduced uncertainty in the energy consumption and CO2 emission estimates in the LECI 2003 but they provide an area to be improved on in future updates of the LECI. We therefore appeal to all users of the LECI 2003 to report errors and/or omissions and to send us their comments and suggestions for future updates of the LECI. Send all comments and suggestions by e-mail, phone, or mail to the contact details below.


Julius Mattai

Environmental Data Manager

The Environment Group

Policy and Partnerships Directorate

Greater London Authority

City Hall

The Queen's Walk

London SE1 2AA


Telephone: 020 7983 4492

Fax: 020 7983 4706

Email: julius.mattai@london.gov.uk

    1. What is the London Energy and CO2 Emissions Inventory (LECI) 2003?


The LECI 2003 is an annually updated database of seamlessly related electronic files that hold geographically referenced datasets of energy consumption and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the Greater London area in 2003. Energy consumption is expressed in kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/yr) and CO2 emissions in tonnes per year (tonnes/year). The LECI 2003 is compiled and maintained by the Greater London Authority (GLA) as part of the implementation of the London Mayor's Energy Strategy.


Uses of the LECI 2003


The LECI 2003 provides energy consumption and CO2 emission estimates at both London borough and 1-km levels for various energy/fuel categories and sectors. The LECI 2003 plays a significant role in the implementation of the Mayor's Energy Strategy and with care can be used:


  • In conjunction with other energy consumption and CO2 emissions tools to better understand the energy picture in the Greater London area and provide a basis for forecasting the effects of economic, environmental and legislative changes on energy consumption and CO2 emissions; and




  • To provide an input to both UK and London policy-making with respect to energy consumption and CO2 emissions abatement and controls.


Spatial scope of the LECI 2003


The geographical area covered by the LECI 2003 includes the 32 London boroughs and the City of London (see Figure ). The total area covered by the LECI 2003 is 1,604 km22. For reporting and analytical purposes, the LECI 2003 study area is geographically divided into three sub-areas: Central, Inner and Outer Greater London areas. To spatially analyse and allocate emission estimates across the LECI study area, the UK Ordnance Survey's 1km2 National Grid is used as the geographical framework for data output and presentation in the LECI 2003. Each 1-km2 grid cell (1,604 1-km2 grid cells cover the entire LECI study area) has a unique identification number and is assigned a value for the level of energy consumption and CO2 emissions occurring within that 1-km2 grid cell


The 1-km2 grid cells that make up the London boroughs are mutually exclusive (i.e., each 1-km2 grid cell belongs to no more than one London borough) and collectively exhaustive (i.e., every 1-km2 grid cell belongs to a London borough). The rule applied when one 1-km2 grid cell falls in more than one London borough is that of simple plurality: the London borough with the largest share of the 1-km2 grid cell’s area gets the 1-km2 grid cell.





Figure . The LECI 2003 study area

Map available in PDF version

OS data © crown copyright. All rights reserved (GLA) (LA100032379)


For reporting and analytical purposes, the LECI 2003 study area is geographically divided into:


  • Central Greater London - roughly corresponds to the boundary of the Central London Congestion Charging Zone (CCZ) and is made up of some of the 1-km2 grid cells in the boroughs of Camden, City of London, Islington, Lambeth, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, and Westminster (see Figure ).




  • Inner Greater London - consists of some 1-km2 grid cells in the boroughs of Camden, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Barnet, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Wandsworth, Westminster, Waltham Forest and Redbridge (see Figure ).



  • Outer Greater London - consists of some 1-km2 grid cells in the boroughs of Enfield, Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Croydon, Ealing, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Kingston-upon-Thames, Merton, Richmond-upon-Thames, Redbridge, Sutton and Waltham Forest (see Figure ).



Figure . Central Greater London area

Map available in PDF version


OS data © crown copyright. All rights reserved (GLA) (LA100032379)




Figure . Inner Greater London area

Map available in PDF version

OS data © crown copyright. All rights reserved (GLA) (LA100032379)


Figure . Outer Greater London area

Map available in PDF version


OS data © crown copyright. All rights reserved (GLA) (LA100032379)


Temporal scope of the LECI 2003


The nominal base year for the LECI 2003 is the 2003 calendar year as that is the most recent year for which datasets were in most cases available at the time the LECI 2003 was complied. The LECI 2003 contains average energy consumption/production and CO2 emission estimates for the base year and these averages are not necessarily indicative of energy consumption or production and CO2 emissions for a given day.


Simplified energy/fuel source and sector split in the LECI 2003


All aspects of energy consumption and CO2 emissions by the domestic sector, the principal industrial and commercial sectors, public services as well as private and public transportation have been considered and estimates of energy consumption and CO2 emissions (including electricity-related energy consumption and emissions) have been simply split into three broad sectors for the purpose of the LECI 2003:


  • Domestic

  • Industrial and commercial

  • Transport


All energy or fuel consumptions, which are not clearly industrial7 or commercial,8 have been included into the industrial and commercial sector. This simplified split (see Table ) has been necessary in order to provide energy consumption and CO2 emission estimates in a format that can be compared to the figures in DTI Energy Statistics and DEFRA’ Experimental Statistics on CO2 emissions at Local Authority and Regional Level.


Table . Simplified energy/fuel source and sector split in the LECI 2003

Energy Category

Energy/Fuel Source

Energy/Fuel Sector

Data Source













Energy Consumption

Electricity

Domestic

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006

Industrial and Commercial

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006







10Energy Consumption

Gas

Domestic

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006

Industrial and Commercial

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006







11Energy Consumption

Oils

Domestic

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006

Industrial and Commercial

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006







13Energy Consumption

Rails

Transport

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006







Energy Consumption

Roads

Transport

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006







Energy Consumption

Coal

Domestic

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006

Industrial and Commercial

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006







Energy Consumption

Shipping

Transport

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006







Energy Consumption

Aviation

Transport

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006







14Energy Consumption

Renewables & Wastes

Industrial and Commercial

NAEI 2003, DTI 2006







Energy Production

Combined Heat & Power

Industrial and Commercial

LAEI 2003/GLA 2006



What is new in the LECI 2003?


The following significant improvements have been incorporated into the LECI 2003:


  1. The LECI 2003 road network has been completely updated and is now based on OSCAR® (Ordnance Survey Centre Alignment of Roads). Road transport emission factors, fuel consumption, traffic flow, vehicle speed, minor road vehicle kilometres, taxi data and estimates for taxis and Transport for London (TfL) buses have all been refined and updated. This means that all LECI 2003 road transport energy and fuel consumption and CO2 emissions estimates are now based upon more accurate and up-to-date 2003 data and assumptions. Changes have been made to vehicle profiles (12 to 24 hours) for 2003. Speeds, vehicle stock (including making the petrol car fleet newer) and vehicle emission factors have also been updated. Motorcycle stock and emission factors have been completely updated to include 2003 vehicle emissions improvements. Minor roads have been adjusted to bring the total vehicle kilometres up to 32.8 billion for 2003. Minor road speeds and explicit minor road estimates (i.e., those on LTS links) in the central zone have also been changed.




  1. Up-to-date (2003) rail traffic activity and energy consumption datasets 2003 were obtained from AEA Technology Rail and were used to estimate energy consumption and CO2 emissions from rail traffic in the Greater London area. The LECI 2003 rail energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates now totally supersede the LECI 2000 rail energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates, which were based on 1995/96 rail traffic datasets.




  1. A comprehensive set of improved emission factors and up-to-date (2003) activity datasets for marine vessels operating within the LECI study area were obtained from the Lloyd's Maritime Intelligence Unit (LMIU) and the Port of London Authority (PLA) to estimate energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the Greater London area. The LECI 2003 ship energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates now entirely supersede the LECI 2000 ship energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates, which were based on 1995/96 ship movement datasets.



  2. National Grid Transco plc provided updated (2003) gas demand datasets, which were combined with the new 2003 emission factors provided by National Environmental Technology Centre (NETCEN) to estimate energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the LECI 2003. The LECI 2003 gas energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates now entirely supersede the LECI 2000 gas energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates, which were based on 2000 gas demand datasets.




  1. AEA Technology plc (on behalf of BAA plc) provided updated energy consumption and CO2 emission estimates from the Heathrow Emissions Inventories – 2002 (used as a proxy for 2003 base year), which were spatially analysed and incorporated into the LECI 2003. The LECI 2003 Heathrow energy consumption and CO2 emission estimates now entirely supersede the LEC1 2000 Heathrow energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which were based on 1998 Heathrow activity datasets. No update was undertaken for the London City Airport and the methodology for estimating energy consumption and CO2 emissions from City Airport remained the same as in the LECI 2000.




  1. The energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates for electricity, oil, wastes & renewables and coal have all been updated using the 2003 figures produced for DTI by NETCEN using information on emissions from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). The LECI 2003 energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates for electricity, oil, wastes & renewables and coal now entirely supersede the LECI 2000 gas energy consumption and CO2 emissions estimates, which were based on pre-2000 or 2000 activity datasets




  1. The LECI 2003 incorporates a number of enhancements that provide users with functionality that facilitate the querying, displaying, reporting and exporting of the underlying energy consumption and CO2 emissions datasets through user-friendly graphical user interfaces (GUI) to a Microsoft® Excel workbook (with various Excel formats already applied to facilitate filtering by London boroughs and other spatial units).




  1. The LECI 2003 provides improved and integrated links to the most common Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications (i.e., MapInfo® Professional and ArcView® GIS), ensuring that users benefit from the mapping, visualisation and querying functionality offered by these GIS applications.




  1. The LECI 2003 contains two new and important documents - "LECI 2003 User Guide" and "LECI 2003 Methodology Manual".

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