Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи и чтения на английском языке для студентов 1 курса Института транспорта и энергетики Сост. Е. В. Волкова, кафедра «Иностранные языки», тогу




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НазваниеМетодические указания по развитию навыков устной речи и чтения на английском языке для студентов 1 курса Института транспорта и энергетики Сост. Е. В. Волкова, кафедра «Иностранные языки», тогу
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«ТИХООКЕАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»


АВТОМОБИЛЬНЫЙ ТРАНСПОРТ


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ К ИЗУЧЕНИЮ

АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1-ГО КУРСА

СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ ИНСТИТУТА ТРАНСПОРТА И ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ


Хабаровск

Издательство ТОГУ

2008


УДК 629.113 (07)


Автомобильный транспорт: методические указания для студентов 1 курса института транспорта и энергетики / сост. Е. В. Волкова. – Хабаровск : Изд-во Тихоокеан. гос. ун-та, 2008. - 32с.


Методические указания разработаны на кафедре «Иностранные языки».

Цель методических указаний – научить студентов читать, понимать и переводить тексты автомобильной тематики.


Печатается в соответствии с решениями кафедры «Иностранные языки» и методического совета международного факультета.


Главный редактор Л. А. Суевалова

Редактор Л. С. Бакаева

Операторы компьютерной верстки Волкова Е. В., Волков А. В.


Подписано в печать 12.05.08 Формат 60x84 1/16

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Издательство Тихоокеанского государственного университета.

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Отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства

Тихоокеанского государственного университета.

680035, Хабаровск, ул. Тихоокеанская, 136.

© Тихоокеанский государственный

Университет, 2007


Общие положения


Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи и чтения на английском языке для студентов 1 курса Института транспорта и энергетики


Сост. Е.В.Волкова, кафедра «Иностранные языки», ТОГУ


Методические указания разработаны для формирования у студентов навыков устной речи и чтения литературы по специальности. Они включают в себя 6 уроков (Lessons), каждый из которых состоит из 2 частей: работа над новой лексикой (Word Study), работа с текстом (Text Study). Все упражнения построены на несложном грамматическом материале для активного овладения лексическим минимумом профессиональной направленности. Тематика текстов включает:

- виды транспорта (грузовики, автобусы, внедорожники);

- историю автомобилестроения в России и за рубежом;

- вопросы экологической безопасности транспортных средств.

Послетекстовые упражнения служат для закрепления изученного материала и являются контрольно-обучающими.

В раздел дополнительного чтения (Supplementary Reading) включены 5 текстов, а также упражнения к ним. После текстов дан перевод незнакомых слов, что облегчает понимание текста и ускоряет процесс обучения.

Весь материал носит информативный характер, тексты снабжены иллюстрациями, что повышает мотивацию изучения английского языка профессиональной направленности.


LESSON 1


WORD STUDY

Words to remember:


Car – автомобиль; car service, to drive a car, light motor car

Carry – перевозить, носить; to carry goods, to carry passengers, to carry a heavy box

Cargo – груз; an insured cargo, unpacked cargo, valuable cargo

Invent – изобретать; to invent a machine, invention, inventor

Engine – двигатель; diesel engine, petrol engine, engine design

Carriage – повозка; ж/д вагон; перевозка; horse-drawn carriage, to change carriages

Move – двигаться; to move along the road, to move fast

Body – кузов; body style, car body, to develop a new body style

Steel – сталь; стальной; steel frame, a component made of steel


Exercise 1. Say in one word:


a) To move from one place to another

b) Goods carried in a ship or aircraft

c) Machine producing power or motion

d) To create or design something not existing before

e) Hard alloy of iron and carbon, used for tools, machines, etc.

f) To change place or position


Exercise 2. Put the letters in the proper order:


ACR, ROGAC, YODB, RYRAC, GIENNE, VNINTE, EMVO.


Exercise 3. Odd –one –out!


Engine, car, type, body.

To design, to invent, to develop, to move.

Cargo, machine, load, goods.


Exercise 4. Choose the proper word:


a) Louis Renault built his first (style, cargo, car) in 1898.

b) Russian scientist Popov (carried, invented, moved) radio.

c) Most car components are made of (plastic, wood, steel).

d) The car is equipped with 8-cylinder (engine, machine, transport).

e) Long time ago people made attempts to construct a horseless (engine, body, carriage).


TEXT STUDY


Read the text and choose the appropriate title for it:

    1. The Fastest Racers.

    2. Forms of Transport.

    3. Powerful Machines.


Every day we use many different types of transport. Cars, trains, ships and planes take us to work, school and on holiday. They also carry cargo from place to place. This cargo might be letters and parcels, food, machines and even animals.

Animals used to be the main form of transport before engines were invented. They pulled cartloads of goods and carriages of people. Today, animals are still used for transport in some parts of the world.

Modern cars have over 20000 different parts all working together to make the car move. Most cars are built in special factories. The car goes through the factory and parts are added to it one by one.

Racing cars are built to go much faster than family cars. Formula One cars are the fastest racers. They are low and light with a powerful engine so they can speed round the track easily. The cars reach over 290 km per hour on the straight parts of the track and up to 150 km per hour round the corners. During a race the tyres wear out very quickly and may need to be changed several times. It takes a racing team only about eight seconds to change all four tyres.

The role of the automobile is great in all spheres of life and economy. Various special cars have been developed: medical cars, fire-fighting machines, passenger vehicles. It is impossible to imagine our life without automobiles.


Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:


1. Animals used to be…

2. Cars, trains, ships and plains…

3. Most cars are built in…

4. Racing cars can go…

5. Animals are still used for transport in…

6. The role of the automobile is…


Exercise 6. Answer the questions:


  1. What types of transport do we use every day?

  2. How did people in the past carry cargoes?

  3. What animals are usually used for transporting loads?

  4. Where are most cars built?

  5. What is the difference between racing cars and family cars?

  6. What special cars do people use?


Exercise 7. Find synonyms in the text:


A lot of, too, kind, motor, apply, automobile, plant, component, go, load.


Exercise 8. Writing.


What means of transport do you prefer? Why? Try to explain your choice.

How often do you use this form of transport? Is it fast? Is it cheap or expensive? And what about safety?


LESSON 2


WORD STUDY


Words to remember


Lorry – грузовик; articulated lorry, to drive a lorry

Strong – сильный, прочный; strong design, a strong man, a strong castle

Load – груз, грузить; to carry loads, heavy load

Wheel – колесо; wheel size, to mount a wheel, front wheels, rear wheels

Rigid – жесткий, неподвижно закрепленный; rigid vehicle, rigid body

Vehicle – транспортное средство; 3-wheeled vehicle, military vehicle, passenger vehicle, multipurpose vehicle, electric vehicle, snow-fighting vehicle

Truck – грузовой автомобиль (амер.) all-wheel-drive truck, civil truck, heavy-duty truck

Weigh – весить; to weigh 50 kg, How much do you weigh?

Route – маршрут; bus route, long route, to follow any route


Exercise 1. Say in one word:


  1. Not easily damaged or broken

  2. Way planned from one place to another

  3. Carriage, van, bus used on land to transport goods or passengers

  4. Strong wagon(usually long, open) driven by petrol,(in USA - truck)

  5. Circular frame or disk that turns(on a bicycle, car)



Exercise 2. Insert a proper word:


  1. Civil (body, lorry, engine) can be used for different purposes.

  2. Buses and trams are passenger (vehicles, carriages, lorries).

  3. Most cars have four (components, wheels, types).

  4. Trucks are (rigid, passenger, small) vehicles.

  5. There are a large number of bus (trailers, sections, routes) in our city.

  6. This light motor car (weighs, produces, follows) only 900 kg.

  7. Lorries are designed to carry heavy (trucks, wheels, loads).


TEXT STUDY

LORRIES


Lorries carry goods, such as food, bricks and cars, from one place to another. They have strong steel bodies and large wheels, often in pairs, to support their loads. Small lorries are called rigid vehicles and are built in one piece. The driver’s cab is attached to a flat trailer or container for the goods.

Larger lorries are built in several sections so that they can bend to go round corners. These vehicles are called articulated lorries and can carry loads weighing over 50 tonnes.

Trucks and lorries have a unique role in the distribution of manufactured and agricultural products. A truck (or a lorry) can carry goods between almost any two geographical points, follow any desired route. This kind of transport provides quick, effective service.

Lorries can be adapted for special uses. Some have cranes or scoops for work on building sites and in quarries.

In Russia the first lorries appeared in 1924. They were produced by AMO plant. Famous Soviet lorries (of 1.5 and 3 ton capacity) successfully crossed deserts. They were in great use at construction sites. Our lorries surpassed foreign models in overcoming rough roads and this advantage helped a lot in the Great Patriotic War. On the base of the lorry “Lis-6” the world famous “Katyusha” was constructed.


Exercise 3. Find English equivalents in the text:


Из одного места в другое, перевозить товары, большие колеса, кабина водителя, прочный стальной кузов, строительные площадки, сельскохозяйственная продукция, были произведены, распределение товаров, шарнирные грузовики, жесткие транспортные средства, грузы массой свыше 50 тонн, могут изгибаться, советские грузовики, успешно, преодоление неровных дорог, очень помогло, превосходили зарубежные модели, «полуторки» и «трехтонки».


Exercise 4. Fill the gaps with prepositions:


  1. Lorries carry goods…one place…another.

  2. Rigid vehicles are built…one piece.

  3. Lorries can be adapted…special uses.

  4. This kind…transport provides effective service.

  5. AMO lorries appeared…1924.

  6. Some lorries work…quarries.

  7. The first Russian lorries were produced…AMO plant.


Exercise 5. Find antonyms in the text:


Weak, slow, seldom, smooth, disappeared, unknown, ineffective, peace, the last, disadvantage.


Exercise 6. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.


  1. Lorries carry loads.

  2. Lorries have plastic bodies and small wheels.

  3. Rigid vehicles are built in one piece.

  4. Lorries cannot be adapted for special uses.

  5. The first Russian lorries appeared in 1960.

  6. Lorries are very useful on building sites.

  7. The world famous “Katyusha” was developed on base of an American truck.



Exercise 7. Translate into Russian using the automobile dictionary.


Diesel truck, drop-side truck, dump truck, farm truck, garbage truck, timber truck, off-road truck, military truck, refrigerated truck, platform truck.


LESSON 3


Words to remember:


Drive – вести, управлять авто; привод; front-wheel drive, all-wheel drive vehicle, to drive skillfully, to drive back, to drive a car

Control – управлять; регулирование; to control oneself, automatic control, direct control, manual control, quality control, traffic control, control-gear

Rough – грубый; неровный; rough road, rough food, rough climate

Road – дорога; country road, to cross the road, to be on the road

Purpose – цель; multi-purpose vehicle, main purpose, to use for different purposes

Turn – поворот; поворачивать; to turn to the right, a turn for the better

Manufacture – производить; производство; to manufacture goods, of foreign manufacture

Power – мощность; engine power, effective power, maximum power

Powerful – мощный; powerful machine, powerful engine, a powerful state (ant.- powerless)

Van – автофургон; mail van, delivery van, a running van

Compartment – отделение, отсек; luggage compartment, fuel compartment, passenger compartment, driver’s compartment

Safe – безопасный; safe driving, safe method, safety belt, safety of traffic, crash safety, fire safety, road safety


Exercise 1. Correct spelling mistakes.


  1. You are draiving too fast!

  2. He mounted a pauerful engin in his car.

  3. This factory manufaktures car components.

  4. Lorris are used for different purpoces.

  5. This roud leads to our town.

  6. A mail ven comes to our village once a week.

  7. The authorities feel concern about traffic saifety.

  8. Let’s put your suitcase into the baggage compatment.

  9. Jack can’t controll himself!

  10. You should tern to the left at the cross-road.


Exercise 2. Make up word combinations:


Drive motor

Rough compartment

Powerful lorry

Turn purpose

Baggage goods

Safety road

Manufacture left

Main belt


TEXT STUDY


FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE


Jeeps, Land Rovers and pick-up trucks are specially made for driving over sand, snow and even through water. They are called four-wheel drive vehicles because the engine makes all four wheels turn, instead of just two as on an ordinary car. This gives the driver better control and makes driving safer over rough ground.

Four-wheel drive diggers can move easily over loose or muddy ground to clear earth and rubble from building sites.

Four-wheel drive vehicles are extremely popular in Russia because of bad roads. The UAZ factory manufactures all-wheel drive cross-country vehicles which are designed for transportation of cargoes and passengers on roads of all types as well as off-the-road.

UAZ-31512 – a passenger/ cargo four-door vehicle with multi-purpose body.

UAZ-3741 – a van with all-metal closed wagon-type body divided by a partition into a driver’s cab and a cargo compartment. The automobile is designed for transportation of cargoes which are loaded and unloaded through the side and rear doors.




The UAZ factory manufactures other modifications of four-wheel drive automobiles, which differ in body-style design, comfort and purpose of usage.


Exercise 3. Find English equivalents in the text:


Пикап (грузовой автомобиль на шасси легкового авто), обычный автомобиль, делает вождение безопаснее, транспортное средство с четырьмя ведущими колесами, завод выпускает, предназначены для перевозки, дороги всех типов, грузы и пассажиры, многофункциональный кузов, вне дороги, 4-дверное транспортное средство, боковые и задние двери, грузовой отсек, назначение.


Exercise 4.

Look through the text and find international words. What can you say about such words?


Exercise 5. Put the words in the right order to make a sentence:


  1. popular, four-wheel drive, are, because of, vehicles, in Russia, bad roads.

  2. easily, off-the- road, jeeps, move can.

  3. manufactures, all-wheel-drive, the UAZ factory, vehicles, cross-country.

  4. body, has, UAZ- 31512, multi-purpose.

  5. differ, design, body-style, modifications, in, automobile, may.


Exercise 6. Match the word on the left with one on the right:


Multi-purpose water

Pick-up ground

Through trucks

Cross-country door

Rough vehicle

Four-wheel-drive body

Rear compartment

Cargo automobile


Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with prepositions:


  1. Jeeps are specially made … driving over rough roads.

  2. Four-wheel drive vehicles are popular … Russia.

  3. All-wheel drive cross- country vehicles are designed … transportation … cargoes and passengers … roads … all types.

  4. UAZ- 3741 is a van … a metal body.

  5. Cargoes are loaded and unloaded … the side and rear doors.



LESSON 4


WORD STUDY


Words to remember:


Environment – окружающая среда; to protect environment, environmental research

Traffic – движение транспорта; перевозки; traffic fumes, heavy traffic, traffic cop, traffic officer, traffic jam; two-way traffic; passenger traffic

Harmful – вредный; harmful for health, harmful influence

Charge – заряд; заряжать; to charge a battery, complete charge, air charge, charger

Supply – питание, подача; подводить; fuel supply, supply by accumulators, to supply water

Fuel – топливо; automobile fuel, gas fuel, high-grade fuel, liquid fuel, premium fuel

Petrol – бензин; natural petrol, to use petrol engines, petrol supply, to work on petrol, high quality petrol

Exhaust – выпускной; exhaust gases, exhaust valve, exhaust fumes

Burn – гореть; сжигать; unburned fuel, slow burning, to burn bricks

Source – источник; source of power, source of fuel, source of water, reliable source of information

Feature – черта, особенность; characteristic feature, feature of car design, main feature


Exercise 1. Insert a proper word:

  1. Road (cargo, traffic, vehicle) needs control.

  2. Electric cars don’t do harm to (traffic, power, environment).

  3. The solar cells (move, load, charge) the automobiles storage battery instead of electrical generator.

  4. (Petrol, hydraulic, steam) engines are widely used in cars nowadays.

  5. Solar energy can be a (turn, purpose, source) of power.

  6. Safety is the most essential (feature, body, fuel) in motor car design.


Exercise 2. Identify the word in each group that doesn’t make a partnership with the word in capitals:

HARMFUL – gas, exhaust, fumes, influence

TO CHARGE – a gun, accumulator, battery, safety

TO SUPPLY WITH – fuel, traffic, food, electricity

TO BURN – bricks, one’s fingers, coal, environment

SOURCE – of energy, noise, transport, oil

FUEL – car, leakage, tank, function,

TRAFFIC – jam, cream, manager, control

PETROL – engine, leakage, filling, road


TEXT STUDY


TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT


Today, many people are worried that the petrol used to power cars is poisoning the air. One car burns an average of two tons of fuel per year (mainly petrol) and uses up to 27 tons of air in the process.

In some big cities, traffic fumes and fog mix together to make thick, harmful smog. Exhaust fumes contain carbon dioxide, which is dangerous for human health. There are now more than 400 million cars in the world and the number is still growing fast. So heavy emissions of carbon dioxide are the real threaten to people.

Land and air transport are also a major source of noise which is also harmful for human health. Some experts think that noise leads to slow death. It reduces human life by 8-10 years.

Other ways to power cars are now being tried out. The change over from petrol to gas promises Mitsubishi electric car good results.


Also much work is being carried on in replacing petrol with hydrogen as a motor fuel. Hydrogen is practically ecologically clean and it has excellent motor properties. The raw material from which hydrogen can be obtained is water.

Electric cars have the advantage of giving off no

exhaust fumes. They are clean and quiet, but their batteries soon go flat and have to be charged. To do this a special cable is linked up to an electricity supply.

From the history of electric cars


It is interesting to note that the first electric automobiles appeared at the end of the 19th century. One of those cars was “Columbia”, made in 1898. The machine built by the American electric Vehicle Company was a gift from the British Queen to the Russian Empress. Due to their features – noiselessness, absence of exhaust gases and simplicity of control – they were called Ladies’ cars.

They had very high specifications for that time: speed of up to 25 km.p.h. and a running distance of 30 km without recharge.


Exercise 3. Insert the proper word:


1. Carbon dioxide is (useful, dangerous, effective) for human health.

2. Transport is the source of (supply, traffic, noise).

3. Changing fuel from petrol to (fuel, gas, material) promises good results.

4. Hydrogen is ecologically (clean, fast, heavy).

5. Electric cars are clean and (noisy, quiet, harmful).


Exercise 4. Identify the word in each group that doesn’t make a partnership with the word in capitals. Odd-One-Out!


HIGH- speed, fuel, specifications

ELECTRIC- car, motor, petrol

TRAFFIC- engine, fumes, sign

HEAVY- emissions, duty, feature

SOURCE OF- transport, power, noise

HUMAN- health, life, battery

MOTOR- properties, distance, fuel

EXHAUST- fog, gases, fumes

RUNNING- cable, distance, gear


Exercise 5. Answer the questions:



  1. How do cars poison the air?

  2. What is “smog”?

  3. Why are many people worried?

  4. What do some experts think about noise?

  5. What are scientists and engineers doing about the problem?

  6. What are the advantages of electric cars?

  7. Do they have any disadvantages?

  8. When was the Columbia car made?

  9. Why was it called “Lady’s car”?

  10. What specifications did it have?



LESSON 5


WORD STUDY


Words to remember


Train - поезд; to travel by train, electric train

Locomotive – локомотив; locomotive depot

Coal – уголь; to burn coal, to load coal, coal industry

Comfortable – удобный; comfortable to drive in, a comfortable hotel

Underground – метро; underground train, underground station;

Slow – медленный; slow driving, to slow down, slow train, slow motion

Speed – скорость; high speed, speed limit, to speed up, speedy service, at full speed; to develop speed

Heat – тепло; heat-engine, used heat, cab heater, oil heater, heating-up

Cylinder – цилиндр; 8-cylinder engine, braking cylinder, hydraulic cylinder

Piston – поршень; engine piston, oil-cooled piston, pump piston

Busy – занятой; оживленный (об улице); the line is busy, busy street, busy-body, business

Steam – пар,паровой; steam locomotive, to use steam, steam-driven, steam engine, steamboat (steamship), steam-boiler, steam turbine


Exercise 1. Say in one word:


  1. Hard black mineral that is burnt to supply heat, raise steam.

  2. Taking a long time, not quick.

  3. Hotness produced by the sun, electricity, etc.

  4. Railway built below the surface.

  5. Giving comfort to the body, free from pain or trouble.

  6. Engine and a number of railway coaches, wagons joined together.

  7. Having much to do; full of activity.

  8. Rate of moving

  9. Gas or vapour into which boiling water changes.

  10. Short cylinder fitting closely inside another cylinder or tube, pushed backwards and forwards (by gas or steam in an engine).


Exercise 2. Match the word on the left with one on the right:


Electric depot

Produce industry

Comfortable railway

Slow centre

Coal driving

Locomotive saloon

Underground cylinder

Business heat

Hydraulic limit

Speed train


TEXT STUDY


TRAINS




Trains were first used over 150 years ago to carry people and goods from place to place. The early trains were pulled by locomotives, powered by steam. One of the earliest steam locomotives, Rocket, was built by an Englishman, George Stephenson, in 1829.

The Mallard was the fastest ever steam locomotive. In 1938 it set a record speed of over 200 km per hour.

Steam locomotives burned coal or wood in a fire, which heated up a tank of water. The steam from the boiling water moved cylinders called pistons, which pushed the wheels round.

Most trains today are pulled by diesel or electric locomotives. They can go much faster than steam trains and are more comfortable to ride in.

Electric trains pick up electricity from overhead cables or from a special rail on the ground. The fastest train in the world is an electric train, the French TGV. It can reach an amazing top speed of 380 km per hour.

Many big cities around the world have underground railways. Underground trains run on electricity which they pick up from a track on the ground. Some trains are automatic. As the train goes over certain spots on the track, electronic signals make the train slow down or speed up.

The world’s busiest underground is in Moscow. It carries over six million passengers every day.


Exercise 3. Complete the sentences. There may be more than one version!


  1. Trains carry…

  2. George Stephenson…

  3. The Mallard locomotive…

  4. Most trains today…

  5. Moscow Underground…



Exercise 4. Find 7 mistakes and correct them.


The early trains were steam powered. One of the first steam locomotives, Rocket, was built by an American, G.Stephenson, in 1820. Steam locomotives burned gas, which heated up a tank of water.

Most trains today are also pulled by steam locomotives. Modern trains are comfortable to ride in.

Three big cities in the world have underground railways. Underground trains run on petrol. Moscow underground carries over 6 mln passengers every week.


Exercise 5. Find synonyms:


To carry, speed, underground, to move, to pull, to speed up, to slow down, every day, fast, power.

Velocity, to go, to transport, to detain, daily, to drag, rapid, energy, to quicken, subway.


Exercise 6. Translate into English:


Перевозить товары, 200 км в час, первые поезда, более комфортабельные, самый быстрый паровоз, электровоз, поезда метро, в мире, сжигали уголь или древесину, пар от кипящей воды, замедлять ход, большинство поездов, гораздо быстрее.


LESSON 6


WORD STUDY


Words to remember

Travel – путешествовать, ездить; to travel by plane, to enjoy travelling, to travel round the world

Service – обслуживание; good service, service depot, service life, medical service

Local – местный; local transit, local authorities, local customs

Transit – перевозка, транзит; transit visa, transit ticket, goods in transit

Use – использовать; to use successfully, to use widely, rational use of fuel, of no use

Private – частный, личный; private property, private life, private automobile

Access – доступ; to give access to, no access, accessible, inaccessible

Efficient – эффективный; efficient power, efficient operation, efficient control

Front – передний; front wheels, front mounted engine, to mount at the front

Bus – автобус; city bus, crowded bus, intercity bus, school bus, service bus


Exercise 1. Translate into English:


Хорошее обслуживание, путешествовать поездом, широко применять, частная собственность, городской автобус, местные власти, служебный автобус, медицинское обслуживание, сервисный центр, эффективная мощность, недоступный для осмотра, установить спереди, дать доступ, транзитная виза, эффективное управление, передние колеса, частная дорога, пользоваться инструментами, междугородный автобус.


Exercise 2. Say in one word:


  1. For the use of one person or a group of persons, not people in general

  2. Way into a place; right of using

  3. Make long journeys, move.

  4. Large motor-car carrying passengers for fixed payments along a fixed route.

  5. The forward part of something.

  6. Capable, able to do things well; powerful, effective.


TEXT STUDY


BUSES


Bus is the leader in the field of human transportation. Its flexibility and speedy service have made the bus a popular vehicle for city or local transit, as well as for cross-country travel.

People use buses to travel to jobs and schools that otherwise would be inaccessible for them. A bus carrying 30 passengers is over 6 times as efficient as a private automobile. But stopping buses are much slower than automobiles and they take up greater road space.

There are two main kinds of buses in London: the red double-decker and the red single-decker. Double-deckers have seats for 65 people. Only 5 people are allowed to stand when the seats are full.

There are a large number of routes in London. The main places the bus goes to are shown on the front of the bus.

From the history of the bus-service.

The Museum of British Transport tells the story of public transport in Britain.

In 1829, an Irishman (Shillibeer by name) started the first bus-service in London. His bus was very different to those we can see in London today. It was drawn by three horses and looked like a carriage. The first double-decker bus was built in 1851. But the upper deck didn’t have a roof until 1936. When it was raining the passengers were given raincoats.

In 1885, the first buses, driven by a petrol engine were used in London. The speed of the first petrol engine bus was 12 miles per hour.


Exercise 3. Find English equivalents in the text:


Гибкость; местные перевозки; популярное транспортное средство; недоступны; автобус, везущий пассажиров; частный автомобиль; большее дорожное пространство; в 6 раз эффективнее; большое количество маршрутов; места заняты; спереди; общественный транспорт; очень отличался; верхний этаж (автобуса).




Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps:


1. Bus is… in the field of…

2. Bus is a popular…for…or…transit.

3. A bus carrying…is…

4. Stopping buses are… …than automobiles.

5. There are two… … in London.

6. Double-deckers have… …

7. Shillibeer started …… in 1829.

8. The first bus was drawn by… and looked like…

9. The passengers of… were given raincoats when…

10. The first buses with petrol engine appeared…


Exercise 5. Put the words in the right order to make a sentence:


  1. people, buses, to travel, use, schools, and, to jobs.

  2. take up, road, greater, buses, space, automobiles, than.

  3. full, only, can, five, in double-decker, are, stay, passengers, the seats, when.

  4. the first, 1851, was, double-decker, in, built.

  5. kind, bus, in, popular, the city, transport, of, is, the most.



Exercise 6. Complete the questions to the text and answer them.


  1. What made … a popular vehicle?

  2. Are buses … for cross-country travel?

  3. … buses more efficient … private motor cars?

  4. How many kinds of … are … in London?

  5. … … seats do double-deckers … ?

  6. When … Shillibeer start the first bus-service in … ?

  7. When … the first double-decker built?

  8. What colour are double-… painted in?

  9. … were the passengers of … … given …?

  10. What was the speed of the first petrol …?


Exercise 7. Writing.


Write about bus-service in your city (or town). Are there many bus-routes? What are the buses like? Are they comfortable? What is the interval between the buses of one route? What is the charge? Where can you buy a ticket? What do you think of improving the bus-service?


SUPPLEMENTARY READING


London Traffic


Traffic in London differs from that of the Continent. In England they keep to the left but not to the right. In England people say: “If you go left, you go right. If you go right, you go wrong.”

In London one can see many buses, cars and taxis in the streets. Famous double-deckers are very high and have seats on the upper and lower decks. The London buses first came into the streets in 1829. At first they were horse-drawn* omnibuses, with three horses. The double-deckers of today are speedy and comfortable, but they seem to be very clumsy* moving slowly through the endless line of taxis and cars of all sizes and models. Still they manage to maneuver* very well without running into one another.

There are no trams in London since 1952. The main transport is the underground. The London underground is often called the tube, because it looks like a long, narrow* and dimly lit* tube, with its walls plastered with all kinds of advertisements*.

The London underground stations are old and not attractive to the eye. Trains haven’t any fixed schedule*. During rush-hours* big crowds gather.

One must be very careful using the word “subway”* in London. It does not mean “the underground”. It means “a passage under the street for pedestrians*”.


Horse-drawn – запряженный лошадьми

Clumsy - неуклюжий, неповоротливый Narrow - узкий

To maneuver - маневрировать

Dimly lit – тускло освещенный Rush-hours – часы пик

Advertisement – реклама, объявление

Subway - метро в Америке

Pedestrians - пешеходы

Schedule – расписание


Task 1

Answer the questions:

    1. How does traffic in London differ from that of the Continent?

    2. What vehicles can you see in the streets of London?

    3. What kind of vehicle is double-decker?

    4. When did the first buses appear in London?

    5. Were they powered by engine?

    6. Are there many trams in London?

    7. Is the underground popular among Londoners?

    8. How do they call the London underground? Why?

    9. Are the underground stations attractive?

    10. What does the word “subway” mean in Britain?



Task 2

Match the two halves:

  1. If you go right…

  2. double-deckers are…

  3. the endless line of…

  4. automobiles…

  5. they manage…

  6. walls plastered with…

  7. there are no…

  8. during rush hours…

  9. trains haven’t…

  10. “subway” in London doesn’t mean…




  1. big crowds gather

  2. advertisements

  3. “the underground”

  4. any fixed schedule

  5. to maneuver

  6. of all sizes and models

  7. very high

  8. taxis and cars

  9. trams in London

  10. you go wrong



The History of the Famous Car Models.


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