Inks, papers, calligraphic styles

НазваниеInks, papers, calligraphic styles
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V. Federici, _La Scrittura delle cancellerie italiane dal secolo XII al XVII_

(Rome, 1934).

F. Gasparri, _L'Ecriture des actes de Louis VI, Louis VII, et Phillippe

Auguste_ (Geneva, 1973).

B.E.C. Guerard, _Cartulaire de Saint-Pere de Chartres_ (Paris, 1840).

N.D. Harding, _Bristol Charters, 1155-1373_ (Bristol, 1930).

W.H. Hart and P.A. Lyons, _Cartularium Monasterii de Rameseia_

(London, 1884-93).

W. Hunt, _Two Chartularies of the Priory of St. Peter of Bath_ (Somerset,


C. Johnson and H. Jenkinson, _English Court Hand, A.D. 1066-1500_

(Oxford, 1915).

H. Jenkinson, _The Later Court Hands in England from the XVth to the

XVII Century_ (Cambridge, 1927).

W.T. Lancaster, _Chartulary of the Prior of Bridlington_ (Leeds, 1912).

A.C. Laurie, _Early Scottish Charters prior to 1153_ (Glasgow, 1905).

E. de Lepinois and L. Merlet, _Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Chartres_

(Chartres, 1861-65).

L.C. Lloyd and D.M. Stenton, _Sir Christopher Hatton's Book of Seals_

(Oxford, 1950).

T. Madox, _Formulare Anglicanum, or a Collection of Ancient Charters_

(London, 1702).

J. Mallon, _L'Ecriture de la chancellerie imperiale romaine_

(Salamanca, 1948).

E. Monaci, et al. _Archivo Paleografico Italiano_ (Rome, 1882- ) [15 vols.]

_Monumenta Germaniae Historica_ [a series of dozens of volumes

providing texts for virtually all the extant Merovingian, Carolingian,

and Holy Roman Imperial manuscripts, as well as patristic and

ecclesiastical literature -- breathtakingly exhaustive German

scholarship at its best].

E. Prou, _Recueil de fac-similes d'ecritures du Ve au XVIIe siecle_ (Paris,


A.J. Robertson, _Anglo-Saxon Charters_ (Cambridge, 1939).

J.H. Round, _Ancient Charters Royal and Private Prior to A.D. 1200_

(London, 1888).

J.H. Round, _Calendar of Documents Preserved in France_ (London,


H.E. Salter, _The Boarstall Cartulary_ (Oxford, 1930).

H.E. Salter, _Facsimiles of Early Charters in Oxford Muniment Rooms_

(Oxford, 1929).

W.B. Sanders, _Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts_ (Southampton,


F. Sauer and J. Stummvoll, _Codices Selecti Phototypice Impressi_ (Graz,


G.C. Simpson, _Scottish Handwriting, 1150-1650_ (Edinburgh, 1973).

F.M. Stenton, _English Feudalism_ (Oxford, 1932).

F.M. Stenton, _Transcripts of Charters Relating to Gilbertine Houses_

(Lincoln, 1922).

R. Thommen, _Urkendenlehre_ (Leipzig/Berlin, 1913).

J.J. Vernier, _Chartes de l'abbaye de Jumieges_ (Rouen, 1916).

G.F. Warner and H.J. Ellis, _Facsimiles of Royal and Other Charters in the

British Museum_ (London, 1903).

C.E. Wright, _English Vernacular Hands from the Twelfth to the

Fifteenth Centuries_ (Oxford, 1960).

I hope that a bibliography of this sort is useful.

In Service to the Society,

Hossein Ali Qomi

Subject:Awards & scrolls

Date: 25 May 92

From: perkins at (Jeremy de Merstone)


Organization: The Internet

Arval writes:

> Graydon, you made one side point that caught my eye:


> > First off, the whole SCA concept of 'scroll' is a modern construction.

> > I have only encountered such words as 'writ' and 'charter' and 'letters

> > close' and 'letters patent' and 'capitulary' in reference to medieval

> > legal documents. So the name is invented.


> Excellent point; let us dedicate ourselves to stamping out that word, and

> adopting the more authentic terms. Can anyone give us precise definitions

> of these terms and others related?

Wait! Before anyone goes around "stamping out" the word "scroll", let's

check the OED. Notes: "a" in front of a date means "before" (from _ante_);

I have represented the letters "edh" and "thorn" by
, and the letter

"yogh" by ; meanings without bearing on the discussion have been

ignored, as have all OOP citations, and in-period citations beyond a limit

of two per meaning.

Scroll (meaning 1) A roll of paper or parchment, usually one with

writing upon it.

14.. Nom. in Wr.-Wulcker 682/26 "Hec sidulo, a scrowle"

a1513 FABYAN Chron VII (1533) 152b "He therfore redde the scrowle

of resignacyon him selfe..."

Scrowe (meaning 1) = SCROLL, meaning 1

a1225 Ancr. R. 282 "if
u hauest knif oer clo, mete

er drunch, scrowe oer quaer, holi monne uroure."

13.. Coer de L. 3395 "Looke every mannys name thou wryte, Upon a

scrowe off parchemyn."

Roll (meaning I.1) A piece of parchment, paper, or the like, which is

written upon or intended to contain writing, etc., and is rolled

up for convenience of handling or carrying; a scroll.

a1225 Ancr. R. 344 "Nis non so lutel
inng of eos et

e deouel naue enbreued on his rolle."

1303 R. BRUNNE Handl. Synne 9287 "Wy
hys tee he gan to

at hys rolle to-braste and roe."

(meaning I.2) {spec.} Such a piece of parchment, paper, etc.

inscribed with some formal or official record; a document or

instrument in this form.

1377 LANGL. P. Pl. B, xix, 460 "With _spiritus_intellectus_ they

e reues rolles."

1433 Rolls of Parl. IV 479/1 "That the rolles of accounte of the

Baillifs, and the rentall rolle,.. and all Court rolles been

putte and kepte in the cofre."

[In Latin documents of the time, the terms "Sedulum" (1224), "Rotulus"

(1142) and "Rollus" (1162), along with spelling variants and specifying

adjectives were used for what we would call a "scroll".]

As for Graydon's suggestions:

Writ (meaning 3) A formal writing or paper of any kind; a legal document

or instrument.

a1122 O. E. Chron. (Laud. MS) an.963 "Hu se papa Agatho hit

feostnode mid his write".

a1200 in Kemble Cod. Dipl. IV 203 "Ich mid
usen write elde

and eue...."

(the more general meaning of "that which is written" goes back at

least to the 10th century; a detour into French and back gave the

synonym "escript" found from the late 15th century till after 1700)

Charter (etymol. discussion) lit. A leaf of paper (in OE, called "boc",

BOOK); a legal document or 'deed' written (usually) upon a single

sheet of paper, parchment, or other material, by which grants,

cessions, contracts, and other transactions are confirmed and


(meaning 1) A written document delivered by the sovereign or

legislature: [goes on to give specific reasons for such delivery

with examples going back to the 13th century, including the Magna


(meaning 2) A written evidence, instrument, or contract executed

between man and man : [examples in three sub-categories from the

13th century on]

(meaning 4) As a rendering of L. _charta_ taken: Paper; a paper,

writing, letter, document, etc. [examples from 14th century from

the Wyclif Bible]

Letters Close ... the term doesn't seem to appear in the OED under either

"letter" or "close". There is mention of "close rolls" being

collections of "close writs" (grants under the Great Seal to

private individuals for particular purposes) and similar items,

with the earliest example from 1612.

Letters Patent (meaning I.1 under "patent") An open letter or document,

usually from a sovereign or person in authority, issued for

various purposes, e.g., to put on record some agreement or

contract, to authorize or command something to be done, to confer

some right, privilege, title, property, or office... [examples

from 1292 onwards].

Capitulary (meaning 2) A collection of ordinances (in mod. L. called

_capitula_), especially those made on their own authority by the

Frankish Kings. [examples of this and the variant form "capitular"

all date from after 1600; as a *Latin* term (thus ignored by the

OED), I have a reference from the 13th century of "capitularium",

meaning the set of regulations of a religious chapter--JdM].

While several of Graydon's examples are perfectly fine alternate terms,

there is nothing wrong with "scroll", either (and this is just English --

"escroue" plus spelling variants were the French versions).


Jeremy de Merstone George J Perkins perkins at

North Woods, MidRealm East Lansing, MI perkins at msupa (Bitnet)

Subject: Scribal arts (was Concep

Date: 21 May 92

From: Stephen.Whitis at (Stephen Whitis)


Arvcal wrote...

>The East does not have standard promissaries. We do give out

>promissaries from time to time, but they are done as needed by scribes

>in service to the Crown, and I must say that they are often pretty

>wonderful pieces of work on their own. I know that some kingdoms use

>photocopied scroll-blanks as promissaries; I'd be interested to hear how

>this varies from kingdom to kingdom. What does your kingdom give out

>with an award?

I too would be interested in how other kingdoms handle award


In Ansteorra, at AOA and Grant level, each award has one or more

blanks which we call charters. A charter is similar to a coloring

book page, being a B&W copy (on nice paper) which has the

calligraphy and outlines for the illumination. The spaces where

the recipients name, the date, the branch holding the event, and

the crown signs are left blank and filled in as needed. These

blank charters are distributed amoung the illuminers, who paint

them to look like "real" scrolls. (Or a faxcimile thereof! :-))

In addition, and in theory, each person can request a "real"

scroll, (Called an achievement) one at each major level. (AOA,

Grant, Peerage.) The kingdom scroll person will assign that scroll

to one of the advanced calligraphy/illumination persons, who will

work with the recipient to come up with a scroll they will like,

and this scribe will then make the scroll. The achievement will

have their arms (if registered) and some reference to all the

awards that person has received so far. (I'm not sure if they will

assign achievements for someone who does not have registered arms,

or if they do, how it is handled.)

In practice, there is no backlog on the charters. (Though they

usually are running close to empty.) But very few of the

achievements are done. In fact, most people never make a request

for an achievement. (IMO, because they don't expect to ever see

it.) The few achievements that *do* get completed are usually from

a situation where person A wants a scroll, and is a friend of

person B, a scribe. They tell the kingdom person they are doing

it, and do it.

I could of course give my opinions about changes that I think

should be made in our system, but I think I'll pass for now.

Stephen Whitis/Stephen of the Grove

Steppes/Ansteorra FIDO 1:124/4229

Date: 22 May 92

From: branwen at (Karen Williams)


Organization: Amdahl Corporation, Sunnyvale CA

OK, so SCA award scrolls aren't period, and everyone assumes that calligraphy

and illumination are free. What sorts of c&i would be valued (enough to sell)

by the population, and be period?

How about:

a period recipe?

a love poem?

a war poem?

an indulgence from the church?

Do you think someone of Viking persuasion would love to own a copy of

a saga (or part of one) done in the appropriate hand and with the appropriate

illumination? Wouldn't a thirteenth-century recipe look great framed on

your kitchen wall? (Eric Foxworthy wrote out "Louie, Louie" in Elvish,

with illumination including gold leaf, and sold color photocopies at a con.

They went quickly.)

One of my upcoming projects is a bestiary (which I'm making for myself,

wonder of wonders). I'd like to do a Book of Hours for myself, too, someday.

Ah, and a carpet page. I'd love a carpet page.

Anybody have any other ideas of valuable, period calligraphy and illumination?

Branwen ferch Emrys

The Mists, the West


Karen Williams

branwen at

Awards & scrolls

25 May 92

From: Tim at (Tim)


Fra Tadhg Liath unto Master Arval Benicoeur and all others unto whom these

presents shall have come giveth greeting:

JM> Graydon, you made one side point that caught my eye:

JM> > First off, the whole SCA concept of 'scroll' is a modern construction.

JM> > I have only encountered such words as 'writ' and 'charter' and 'letters

JM> > close' and 'letters patent' and 'capitulary' in reference to medieval

JM> > legal documents. So the name is invented.

JM> Excellent point; let us dedicate ourselves to stamping out that word, and

JM> adopting the more authentic terms. Can anyone give us precise definitions

JM> of these terms and others related?

Certainly. While I was one of the Shield Heralds of the Middle Kingdom ten

years ago (and mundanely a law student) I did a report for Mistress

Graidhne, then Dragon Principal Herald, on that very subject.

The *carta* or charter was the most formal and solemn document produced by

governments during the Middle Ages. They were invariably used for grants of

rights "in perpetuity", such as lands, hereditable honors and franchises,

and Papal privileges (called "bulls" from the lead *bulla* or seal).

Charters were also used for solemn confirmations of prior grants (in
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