Islam: a challenge to faith




НазваниеIslam: a challenge to faith
страница1/33
Дата конвертации13.05.2013
Размер1.21 Mb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   33
ISLAM: A CHALLENGE TO FAITH


Prepared by

www.muhammadanism.org

August 18, 2004


ISLAM

A CHALLENGE TO FAITH


STUDIES ON THE MOHAMMEDAN RELIGION AND THE NEEDS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE MOHAMMEDAN WORLD FROM THE STANDPOINT OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS


BY

SAMUEL M. ZWEMER, F.R.G.S.

SECRETARY, STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT

MISSIONARY IN ARABIA


SECOND REVISED EDITION

1909


NEW YORK

STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT

FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS

1907

[Illustration]


THE COURT OF THE UNIVERSITY MOSQUE EL AZHAR, CAIRO


To complete a course in the Azhar requires about twelve years. The curriculum includes jurisprudence, theology, exegesis, grammar, syntax, rhetoric, logic and the traditions; it has 10,000 students in attendance and 250 professors.


Prepared by

www.muhammadanism.org

August 18, 2004



Copyright, 1907, by

STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT

FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS

TO MY WIFE


Συγκοινωνή μου ἐν τῇ θλίψει καί ἐν τῇ

βασιλείᾳ καί υπομονῇ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ [1]


"There are comparative religions, but Christianity is not one of them."—Joseph Parker.


"To talk, as some do, as if the religion of the prophet of Arabia were well suited to the Semites, or to the Mogul and Turkish races, or, again, to the Negro, is merely to show oneself culpably ignorant at once of human nature, of Christian truth, and even of Islam itself. Such platitudes will never satisfy anyone who has at heart the highest interests of his fellowmen.

"Just as was the case at Rome at the close of one of the great æons in the world's history, so now among ourselves there are men, priding themselves on their enlightenment and liberality of sentiment, who—as their prototypes worshipped Isis and Se­rapis, or, again, followed Epicurus or Plato, according as the varying fashion of the day might impel them—are ready to call themselves now Agnostics, now Buddhists, and now Mohamme­dans, as the fancy may strike them. Such men may, perhaps, bolster up Islam for a time, and thus, for a time, retard its inevitable downfall. But, in spite of their utmost efforts, the true nature of this religious system will become generally known, and will then be seen to be indefensible. Mohammed is, in ev­ery way, unfitted to be the ideal of a single human being. In spite, therefore, of its many half-truths borrowed from other sys­tems, it is not too much to say that Islam has preserved, in the life and character of its founder, an enduring and ever active principle of degradation and decay."—W. St. Clair Tisdall.

PREFACE


The churches of Christendom are at last awaking to the fact that one of the great unsolved missionary prob­lems of the Twentieth Century is the evangelization of the Mohammedan world. The Cairo Conference reports, the organization of new missionary societies for work among Moslems, and the recent alarming reports con­cerning a Moslem peril in West Africa and the Soudan, together carry this message to the churches and the stu­dent-world of Christendom. The Cairo Conference ap­peal, voicing the opinion of many leading missionaries from every Moslem land, was primarily a call for trained men from the universities and professional schools. And this appeal, in the words of Mr. John R. Mott, "has laid upon students as never before the responsibility of reach­ing the Mohammedan world."

But if we are to reach that world with the gospel of Christ we must first know of it and know it. There is no lack of literature on Mohammed and Islam, as is evi­dent from the very extensive bibliography of the subject in all the languages of Europe, not to speak of the litera­ture written by Moslems themselves. But at the same time there is great ignorance even among cultured people of the true character of Mohammed and the real doctrine and moral value of Islam, as well as of its widespread aggressive power as a missionary religion. To present the subject anew, therefore, needs no apology, especially

vii

viii PREFACE


since much of the best literature on Islam is inaccessible to most readers, being in a foreign language.

This book lays no claim to originality save in the form in which the results of the labors of others in this wide field are presented. The bibliographies given for each chapter show the sources of information. The purpose of the book is to present Islam as a challenge to the faith and enterprise of the church. It has a message for those who believe the Gospel and believe that the Gos­pel is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth—to the Mohammedan no less than to others of the non-Christian world.

Its argument, following the order of the chapters, can be expressed in a single sentence: Islam, the great­est of all the non-Christian religions is not of divine but of human origin (I and II), altho so widely extended (III), and it is inadequate, in spite of much that is true and good, to meet man's needs intellectually (IV), spiri­tually (V), or morally (VI), as proved by its own his­tory (VII); therefore the present condition of Moslem lands, with their unprecedented opportunities and crises (VIII), and the work already accomplished (IX and X), are a challenge to evangelize the whole Moham­medan world in this generation (XI and XII).

Whether the facts presented and the authorities given prove the truth of the argument is left to the candid judgment of the reader.

S. M. ZWEMER.

NEW YORK, October, 1907.


After further investigation and practical use of the book in study classes, this edition appears, brought up to date especially in reference to current literature and the bibliography.

S. M. Z.

October, 1909.

CONTENTS


CHAPTER I


THE ORGIN AND SOURCES OF ISLAM


Importance of the Subject.—To the statesman and the Chris­tian—Why was Islam triumphant?—The condition of Arabia before Islam—Civilization.

Pagan Arabia.—The tribes—The trade routes—The political situation—Roman rule in Mecca.

Social Conditions.—The position of women—chivalry—­polygamy and marriage —Islam no improvement.

Pre-Islamic Literature.—The poets—Okatz—The science of writing and its materials.

Arabian Polytheism.—Shahristani's testimony—The various re­ligions of Arabia —Sacred places—Sacrifices—The gods—Allah—General decadence of old religions—Reasons for it.

The Jews of Arabia.—Origin—Their colonies and location—How Mohammed could borrow from them—Their legends and stories—How much Islam owes them.

Christianity in Arabia Before Islam.—When did it enter?—Early diffusion—Monks—Simon Stylites—The Christians of Yemen—Bishoprics—The martyrs of Nejran—Abraha and his expedition against Mecca—Arabian Christianity—Mohammed not ignorant of Christianity—But he lacked sympathy.

The Hanifs—Their name and beliefs—Examples—One of them becomes a Christian.

Islam a Composite Religion.—Mohammed the genius who col­lected the material and put new life into the old faiths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1


CHAPTER II


MOHAMMED, THE PROPHET OF ISLAM


Introductory.—Mohammed's birth, his name and the reasons for his wide influence—What a believing Moslem thinks of it.

A Moslem Portrait.—Kamal-ud-Din Ad-Damiri and his book—The pen-portrait of a perfect man—What Aisha and Ali said in regard to his life, character and death.

ix

x CONTENTS


The factors in Mohammed’s Life.—His environment—The four chief factors—(I) Political factor—The time in which he lived—(2) Religious factor—The Hanifs—(3) The family factor—Power of the Koreish—(4) The genius of Mohammed—Khadijah's influence.

The First Period of His Life.—Date of birth—Sent out to be nursed—The orphan boy's plaint—His first journey—A shepherd—His mercantile expedition and marriage—First revelations—Early converts—Persecution—Flight of converts to Abyssinia—Death of Khadijah—Akaba—The Flight to Medina.

The Second Period.—Change of circumstances and mission—Hostilities against Koreish—Bedr—Its cruelty—Ohod—War against the Jews—Zainab—The campaign of Khaibar—First pil­grimage—Entrance into Mecca—Other expeditions and revolts—Last days—Death of Mohammed.

Personal Appearance.—Height—Complexion—Beard—Com­manding presence —Clarke's reference.

His Character.—A problem of history—Various opinions—The theory of two periods in his life and character—Sprenger's remarks on his epileptic fits—His comparison of Mohammed's ca­reer to Goethe's Faust—The question of Mohammed's moral character—The three standards—Mohammed, in the light of the New Testament—The prophet and the pagan code of morals—Margoliouth's opinion of early Moslem morality—Mohammed and his own law—His relation to women—The superabounding sensuality of Mohammed—The sources of our information all Moslem, and therefore in Mohammed's favor.

The Apotheosis of Mohammed.—How the portrait of history became idealized—Mohammed's titles—His honor—Place in Heaven—Use of his name—Man made in its image—He holds the keys of Heaven—Is a mediator—The story of the wicked Jew.

The Coronation Hymn of Islam.—El Burda—Editions and translations—The author—Story of its composition—Contents—Character—Influence—Source—Object—Was Mohammed a Beacon light?—Mohammed as an example, and his influence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 29


CHAPTER III

THE SPREAD OF ISLAM


Islam a Missionary Religion.—Max Muller's classification—A missionary faith from the beginning—Rapid spread—Extent to­day—Its conquest of North Afriea—Akba's challenge.

Three Periods of Conquest.—The days of the caliphs—World­ly motives in the spread of Islam—More recent advances under the Turks, Moguls and in the present century.

Arabia and Syria.—The apostles of the sword—Revolt of the

CONTENTS xi


Arab tribes after Mohammed's death.—Khalid's campaigns—Ara­bia subdued—Syria—Chaldea—The failure of Islam in converting the Christians.

Africa.—Three periods of conquest—Egypt invaded—Tripoli—Morocco—Three streams of immigration—Islam in Abyssinia—It crosses the Sahara—Sokoto—Abdul Kadir—The Mandi—The Senusi derwishes—Their power and strongholds.

Europe.—Islam enters Spain—Italy—The Ottoman Turks in Europe—Physical reasons for limit of northern conquest—Ar­nold's account.

Persia and Central Asia.—Battle of Nehavend—Conquest of Persia—Significance for Islam—Bokhara and Turkestan—Present condition—The testimony of a missionary.

China.—An example of propagation without the sword—Early commercial intercourse with Arabia—Wahab bin Kabsha—Mos­lems in Canton—Arab settlements—Character of Islam in China—Present extent and growth—Method of propaganda—Will China become Moslem?

India.—Its large Moslem population—How Islam entered—Condition of India in the eighth century—The first invasion—Sindh conquered—Examples of butchery—The invasion from the North in the tenth century—Mahmud, the idol-breaker—Moham­med Baktiyar—The Mogul emperors—Islam in Southern India—Result of conquest.

The Malay Archipelago.—Sumatra—The Moluccas—The Phil­ippines as an example of how Islam won its way—Meccan pil­grims in Sumatra—Islam in Java—The Mohammedan peril—A lost opportunity—Islam made its conquest unchallenged.

Islam Our Example.—In zeal for the faith—Their preaching and fighting—Mohammed's saying—Contrast of Moslem propo­ganda with Christian—Present-day methods—In Africa—The Moslem sword and ours—We should do more than they. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 55


CHAPTER IV


THE FAITH OF ISLAM


Scope of the chapter.—The relation of Moslem faith to practice—The six articles of their creed—Sources of this belief.

The Moslem Idea of God.—His Unity—His character—The opinion of Hauri—Of James Freeman Clarke—How distinguished from Judaic and Christian monotheism.

The Doctrine of Angels.—Three species of spiritual beings: Angels—Classification—The four archangels—Recording angels—Avenging angels—Guardian angels.

xii CONTENTS


Jinn—Their nature, power, abode—Cause of superstitions.

The devils—Harut and Marut.

The Books of God—Number—Classification—Condition. The Koran—its size—Chapters—Beauty—Specimen verses—Contents —Its defects.

The Prophets of God.—Their number—The six major proph­ets, or apostles—The minor prophets—Mohammed, according to history and tradition—Jesus Christ—His birth, miracles, ascen­sion—His return and death.

The Day of Judgment.—Resurrection—Paradise—Hell—Signs of the last day.

Predestination.—Nature and practical effect of this belief—Omar Khayyam's quatrain—How distinguished from Christian teaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 85


CHAPTER V


THE RITUAL OF ISLAM


Introductory.—The roots and the branches of Islam—The five pillars of religion—All based on tradition, as well as on the Koran.

Tradition.—Immense number of traditions—Authenticity—A specimen tradition—How handed down—How regarded—The five duties:

Confession of the Creed.—Its brevity—Its value—Frequency of its use—How it must be repeated—Its effect on the spread of Islam.

Prayer.—Moslem prayer distinguished from Christian prayer—Prayer must be in Arabic—Posture in prayer—A praying-com­pass.—Purification as a preliminary to prayer—The use of the toothbrush—Ablutions—Moral purity—The proper times for prayer—The contents of a prayer—Special prayers—Vain repeti­tions—The call to prayer.

The Month of Fasting.—Origin—Importance—Ramazan—Duration of fast—Its character—Its strictness—Who are exempt—Other fasts.

Legal Alms.—Origin of term used—Rate of these alms—To­tal—On whom bestowed—The wonderful hospitality of Moham­med and his followers.

The Pilgrimage.—Its influence on Islam—Number of annual pilgrims to Mecca—Route—Summary of the ceremonies—Cir­cumambulation of the Kaaba—The prayer—The stoning—The sacrifice—The veneration of the Black Stone.

CONTENTS xiii


The Kaaba and Its Black Stone.—Legend of its origin—Shape and dimensions—The Mosque—Other objects of interest—Early stone-worship in Arabia—The Black Stone an aerolite—On whom the pilgrimage is incumbent—Other places of pilgrimage—Condi­tion of the Sacred Cities.

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   33

Добавить в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

Islam: a challenge to faith iconThe grand principle of the divine life is faith-simple, earnest, whole-hearted faith-faith that just takes and enjoys all that God has given-faith that puts

Islam: a challenge to faith iconIslam in America or American Islam?

Islam: a challenge to faith iconOn the Sociology of Islam On the Sociology of Islam Lectures by a j shari'ati

Islam: a challenge to faith iconCommon Christian Faith: Wiki Main Page From Common Christian Faith: Wiki

Islam: a challenge to faith icon1: The Scope and Challenge of International Marketing

Islam: a challenge to faith iconTo challenge the predominance of English in international communications

Islam: a challenge to faith iconWhat is the cfa virginia Investment Research Challenge?

Islam: a challenge to faith iconIn Tiny Pores, a Big Challenge to Analytical Chemistry

Islam: a challenge to faith iconHistory and Development of ifrs and aaoifi and Their Future Challenge

Islam: a challenge to faith iconManaging innovation – meeting the 21st century challenge


Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
lib.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
lib.convdocs.org
Главная страница