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Introducing the topic
- We use will with all persons to form the future tense. Will does not have an “s” form.
I will drive.
She will drive.
- We put not after will to form the negative.
- You can put a frequency word between will and the main verb.
She will never forget the English language.
Will you say a speech at graduation?
1. Make a list with the class in which situations they may need to ask questions using future.
- form: will be + gerund (verb+ing) (I will be going home after dinner.)
Note contractions as well: I’ll, he’ll, etc.
- indicates someone will be in the middle of doing something at a certain time in the future
Francisco: I always read the newspaper at 8:00 in the morning.
Pablo: At 8:00 yesterday morning, Francisco was reading the newspaper.
Milvia: It’s eight now. He is reading the newspaper.
Ruth: At 8:00 tomorrow morning, he will be reading the newspaper.
- Activities: wash your face, drive a car, drink coffee, go to sleep, shout, go to work, play soccer, make dinner
Very, Too, Enough
- used as adverbs to describe/intensify the meanings of adjectives
- review meanings separately, providing examples of each
very - emphasizes an adjective
This job is very difficult.
too – also emphasizes an adjectives but implies the condition is excessive
I am too tired to go.
enough – indicates the strength of a condition is sufficient
He is brave enough.
1) Dialogue: Present a model dialogue using the words.
A: Can you lift this?
B: It looks very heavy. I’m not sure. I’ll try. Sorry, I can’t. It’s too heavy.
(A: I guess you aren’t strong enough!)
Provide other prompts:
reach – high (tall)
do – hard (smart)
run to the store – far (fast)
eat – strange (brave)
I’m sure I could do that. I know enough.
I think I could work in the warehouse. I’m strong enough and I’m tall enough.
I can do office work, I’m sure. My English is very good.
- This can also involve questions from the facilitator:
-Do you have to travel very far to get to your job? Is it too far?
-Is your English good enough to work in an office? Are you strong enough to
- How old should someone be before they get married? Is twenty too young?
- How often do you see your family? Is it enough, or do you see them too much?
Coordinating and Correlative Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions: join words, phrases, or complete sentences
and but or nor so for yet
Correlative Conjunctions: conjunctions that work in pairs
both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor
- Provide an example as follows:
- I like oranges. I like lemons. > I like oranges and lemons.
- I do not like oranges. I do not like lemons. > I don’t like either oranges or lemons.
- I like oranges. I do not like lemons. > I like oranges but I do not like lemons.
3. Students make sentences using conjunctions. Provide examples as below:
- Both Jose and Diega can drive.
- Neither Maria nor Ana play an instrument.
- Jose can drive but Ana cannot drive.
The facilitator could also ask questions:
- Who could drive me to the doctor if I was sick?
- Who would make a good lifeguard?
- Action of the verb happens to the subject. The person or thing that does the action is expressed in a preposition phrase using “by”.
My car was hit by a grocery cart at the market.
- formed in two ways:
1. “to be” + past participle
2. “to get” + past participle
1. The car was driven by David. The car got wrecked because David was blindfolded by the woman in the back seat.
2. Drugs are made and tested in a lab by evil scientists. They are consumed by unsuspecting victims.
3. Elephants are being eaten right now as we speak.
A hurricane hit the city. > The city was hit by a hurricane.
The teacher brought a book to class. > The book was brought to class by the teacher.
The Conditional Tenses
Introducing the tense:
Conditional tenses refer to something that will/would happen depending on something else. A visual to keep in mind when teaching the conditional tenses is one of dominoes falling: One domino falls, which leads to another falling, etc. For example, in the sentence: “I will go to the movies if he calls me,” the first domino is “he calls me” because it causes the second clause to occur: “I will go to the movies.”
All the conditional tenses indicate cause and effect relationships, the level of certainty between the cause and effect is what differentiates the tenses. The first indicates a relationship that is pretty certain, the second indicates a relationship that is less certain, and in either case, ‘will’ or ‘would’ can be substituted for ‘might’ or ‘maybe will/would’ in order to show that the relationship is less certain.
First Conditional: Will + If...
Grammar: The first conditional is used when there is a reasonable probability that something else will occur. In its most simple case, it is formed from two clauses (2 dominoes). The first “domino” is formed by the word “if,” the second is formed by the word “will,” the clauses can be put in either order in a sentence. For example, one could say: “I will get a job if I need money,” or “If I need money, I will get a job.” Since the speaker is using the first conditional, one would assume that the speaker is probably going to get a job. In other words, there it is probably that the first domino will fall, the speaker will probably need money, so the speaker will probably get a job.
Настоящее время (Present simple verb tense: That is a nice dress. It looks trendy.)