Verb “to be,” present tense with subject pronouns – p. 4 “To be” with yes/no questions and answers – p. 5




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НазваниеVerb “to be,” present tense with subject pronouns – p. 4 “To be” with yes/no questions and answers – p. 5
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Introducing the topic



- We use will with all persons to form the future tense. Will does not have an “s” form.

Example:

I will drive.

She will drive.


- We put not after will to form the negative.

- You can put a frequency word between will and the main verb.

Example:

She will never forget the English language.


Activity Ideas::


          1. Role-play the following characters with students using “will”:

                1. Landlord and a person who wants to rent an apartment. The person wants to know what the landlord will do to fix the apartment.

                2. Man proposing marriage to a woman. The man is making promises.

                3. Employee candidate and employer. The candidate wants to get a job.

                4. Politician and voters. The politician is making promises to get votes.




              1. What Will You Celebrate?:

                1. Ask the class to use the EFA calendar and make questions about future celebrations.

          • Will you go to the EFA cup?

Will you say a speech at graduation?


              1. Brainstorming Questions with the Future Tense:

1. Make a list with the class in which situations they may need to ask questions using future.

                  1. Encourage learners to make questions using to be.

                1. Then, they can role-play those situations.




              1. Horoscopes:

                1. Have the learners read their horoscopes in the newspaper.

                2. They are usually full of future tense. You might want to ask learners circle the future tense in the horoscopes as a way to comprehend what they are saying.

                3. Ask them to write predictions, based on their horoscopes, of what will happen to them, or what they will do.



Future Continuous


- form: will be + gerund (verb+ing) (I will be going home after dinner.)

Note contractions as well: I’ll, he’ll, etc.

- indicates someone will be in the middle of doing something at a certain time in the future


Activity Ideas:


  1. What will you be doing?:

    1. Facilitator asks learners what they will be doing at some future time.

          • Ex: “What will you be doing tomorrow night?” “Tomorrow night I will be going to my son’s school for the open house.”




  1. Tense Review:

              1. Incorporate the past, present, and future continuous (progressive) tenses in the following review.

              2. Ask the learners a question in the simple present and have them write or say three sentences: one about a time yesterday, one about the time now, and one about the time tomorrow.

          • Facilitator: What do you always do at 8:00 in the morning?

Francisco: I always read the newspaper at 8:00 in the morning.

Pablo: At 8:00 yesterday morning, Francisco was reading the newspaper.

Milvia: It’s eight now. He is reading the newspaper.

Ruth: At 8:00 tomorrow morning, he will be reading the newspaper.


  1. Charades:

      1. Learners are each given an activity that they will be doing.

      2. They mime out the actions that would lead up to that activity, and the students guess what it is. (You will be . . . )

- Activities: wash your face, drive a car, drink coffee, go to sleep, shout, go to work, play soccer, make dinner


  1. Planning a Trip:

      1. Collect brochures about places learners might visit.

      2. In groups, learners plan their trip, describing what they will be doing when they are there.



Very, Too, Enough


- used as adverbs to describe/intensify the meanings of adjectives

- review meanings separately, providing examples of each

very - emphasizes an adjective

This job is very difficult.

too – also emphasizes an adjectives but implies the condition is excessive

I am too tired to go.

enough – indicates the strength of a condition is sufficient

He is brave enough.


Activity Ideas:

1) Dialogue: Present a model dialogue using the words.

A: Can you lift this?

B: It looks very heavy. I’m not sure. I’ll try. Sorry, I can’t. It’s too heavy.

(A: I guess you aren’t strong enough!)

Provide other prompts:

reach – high (tall)

do – hard (smart)

run to the store – far (fast)

eat – strange (brave)



  1. Job Know-How/Capabilities:

              1. Learners brainstorm different statements that could make at a workplace to speak their mind.

I’m sure I could do that. I know enough.

I think I could work in the warehouse. I’m strong enough and I’m tall enough.

I can do office work, I’m sure. My English is very good.

- This can also involve questions from the facilitator:

-Do you have to travel very far to get to your job? Is it too far?

-Is your English good enough to work in an office? Are you strong enough to

work construction?


  1. Other Discussions:

              1. These words can be used for discussion on other issues:

- How old should someone be before they get married? Is twenty too young?

- How often do you see your family? Is it enough, or do you see them too much?




Coordinating and Correlative Conjunctions


Coordinating Conjunctions: join words, phrases, or complete sentences

and but or nor so for yet


Correlative Conjunctions: conjunctions that work in pairs

both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor


Activity Ideas:


              1. Combining Sentences:

                1. Give learners a basic list of conjunctions (and, or, either, but) and have them make their own sentences.

                2. Then have them join the statements with the connectors they have just learned.

- Provide an example as follows:

- I like oranges. I like lemons. > I like oranges and lemons.

- I do not like oranges. I do not like lemons. > I don’t like either oranges or lemons.

- I like oranges. I do not like lemons. > I like oranges but I do not like lemons.


  1. Similarities and Differences:

                1. Poll class members on activities they can/cannot do.

                2. Create a chart on the board like the one below:






Drive

Swim


Type

Play an instrument

Ana

x

x



x

Jose



x

x



Diega





x

x

Maria

x





x


3. Students make sentences using conjunctions. Provide examples as below:

- Both Jose and Diega can drive.

- Neither Maria nor Ana play an instrument.

- Jose can drive but Ana cannot drive.


The facilitator could also ask questions:

- Who could drive me to the doctor if I was sick?

- Who would make a good lifeguard?



Passive Voice


- Action of the verb happens to the subject. The person or thing that does the action is expressed in a preposition phrase using “by”.

My car was hit by a grocery cart at the market.

- formed in two ways:

1. “to be” + past participle

2. “to get” + past participle

- Examples:

1. The car was driven by David. The car got wrecked because David was blindfolded by the woman in the back seat.

2. Drugs are made and tested in a lab by evil scientists. They are consumed by unsuspecting victims.

3. Elephants are being eaten right now as we speak.


  • The passive voice exists in every verb tense. Begin with one tense and as students understand, other tenses can be introduced.

  • It shows up most commonly in spoken language and in newspaper. Newspapers are good sources to use for work with passive voice.


Activity Ideas:

              1. Changing Sentence:

                1. Provide simple sentences to change the passive voice.

  • We bought a car. > The car was bought by us.

A hurricane hit the city. > The city was hit by a hurricane.

The teacher brought a book to class. > The book was brought to class by the teacher.

  1. News Search:

                1. Give learners articles from the newspaper.

                2. Have them search for examples of passive voice to share.

                3. As an optional extension, they could try to change selected sentences to the active voice. This is a good comprehension activity because it forces learners to look throughout the article to figure out who is doing the action.

  1. What happened?:

    1. Present a picture, object, or person; Something which has been altered is best (a smashed car, a broken pencil, a folded paper, etc.)

    2. Ask the learners “What happened to the ______?”

    3. A rich picture or series of pictures could provide the starting point for learners to write a story in the passive voice about what happened.

  1. Gender Differences: (This helps to practice with modals as well.)

                1. Ask learners to list five things usually done by men, five by women, and five by both.

                • For example: Children are usually raised by women.

                1. Incorporate modals to discuss how things should/can/might be done. This can create some entertaining discussions.



The Conditional Tenses



Introducing the tense:

Conditional tenses refer to something that will/would happen depending on something else. A visual to keep in mind when teaching the conditional tenses is one of dominoes falling: One domino falls, which leads to another falling, etc. For example, in the sentence: “I will go to the movies if he calls me,” the first domino is “he calls me” because it causes the second clause to occur: “I will go to the movies.”

All the conditional tenses indicate cause and effect relationships, the level of certainty between the cause and effect is what differentiates the tenses. The first indicates a relationship that is pretty certain, the second indicates a relationship that is less certain, and in either case, ‘will’ or ‘would’ can be substituted for ‘might’ or ‘maybe will/would’ in order to show that the relationship is less certain.


First Conditional: Will + If...



Grammar: The first conditional is used when there is a reasonable probability that something else will occur. In its most simple case, it is formed from two clauses (2 dominoes). The first “domino” is formed by the word “if,” the second is formed by the word “will,” the clauses can be put in either order in a sentence. For example, one could say: “I will get a job if I need money,” or “If I need money, I will get a job.” Since the speaker is using the first conditional, one would assume that the speaker is probably going to get a job. In other words, there it is probably that the first domino will fall, the speaker will probably need money, so the speaker will probably get a job.
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