[1] N. M. Abdel-Rahim and J. E. Quaicoe, "Analysis and design of a multiple feedback loop control strategy for single-phase voltage-source ups inverters,"




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Название[1] N. M. Abdel-Rahim and J. E. Quaicoe, "Analysis and design of a multiple feedback loop control strategy for single-phase voltage-source ups inverters,"
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[1] N. M. Abdel-Rahim and J. E. Quaicoe, "Analysis and design of a multiple feedback loop control strategy for single-phase voltage-source ups inverters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 532-541, 1996.


This paper presents the analysis and design of a multiple feedback loop control scheme for single-phase voltage-source uninterruptible power supply (UPS) inverters with an L-C filter. The control scheme is based on sensing the current in the capacitor of the load filter and using it in an inner feedback loop. An outer voltage feedback loop is also incorporated to ensure that the load voltage is sinusoidal and well regulated. A general state-space averaged model of the UPS system is first derived and used to establish the steady-steady quiescent point. A linearized small signal dynamic model is then developed from the system general model using perturbation and small-signal approximation. The linearized system model is employed to examine the incremental dynamics of the power circuit and select appropriate feedback variables for stable operation of the closed-loop UPS system. Experimental verification of a laboratory model of the UPS system under the proposed closed-loop operation is provided for both linear and nonlinear loads. It is shown that the control scheme offers improved performance measures over existing schemes. It is simple to implement and capable of producing nearly perfect sinusoidal load voltage waveform at moderate switching frequency and reasonable size of filter parameters. Furthermore, the scheme has excellent dynamic response and high voltage utilization of the dc source.

[2] K. K. Afridi and J. G. Kassakian, "Turn-off failures in individual and paralleled mct's," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 299-303, 1996.


A turn-off failure mode in individual MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's), initiated by a long gate voltage rise-time, is identified and analyzed. It is shown to be caused by turn-off current crowding in the MCT. In addition, a differential failure mode in paralleled devices is demonstrated in which the slower of the two MCT's fails to turn off. This is caused by the increase in anode current through the slower device and the decrease in gate voltage rise-time due to the MCT's Miller capacitance.

[3] V. G. Agelidis, P. D. Ziogas, and G. Joos, "'dead-band' pwm switching patterns," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 522-531, 1996.


Reference/modulating waveform continuity is not a necessary condition for the implementation of switching patterns for three-phase pulse-width modulated (PWM) converters if the load or the source are Y-connected. This is based on the fact that the converter phase-voltages do not need to be sinusoidal and switching pattern discontinuities - 'dead-bands' - do not degrade the quality of output/input voltage/current waveforms by introducing low-order harmonics if certain parameters are optimized. This paper discusses general characteristics of various discontinuous switching patterns for PWM converters and shows that they can yield better performance than their continuous counterparts in some operating regions. Performance is defined as harmonic distortion normalized with respect to effective switching frequency and serves as a measure of comparison with continuous PWM techniques. The applications considered include general purpose and application specific solid-state power supplies using voltage source inverters and PWM rectifiers. Theoretical considerations are verified on an experimental unit.

[4] C. H. Ahn and M. G. Allen, "Comparison of two micromachined inductors (bar- and meander-type) for fully integrated boost dc/dc power converters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 239-245, 1996.


Two micromachined integrated inductors (bar- and meander-type) are realized on a silicon wafer by using modified, IC-compatible, multilevel metallization techniques. Efforts are made to minimize both the coil resistance and the magnetic reluctance by using thick electroplated conductors, cores, and vias. In the bar-type inductor, a 25-μm thick nickel-iron permalloy magnetic core bar is wrapped with 30-μm thick multilevel copper conductor lines. For an inductor size of 4 mm×1.0 mm×110 μm thickness having 33 turns of multilevel coils, the achieved specific inductance is approximately 30 nH/mm2 at 1 MHz. In the meander-type inductor, the roles of conductor wire and magnetic core are switched, i.e., a magnetic core is wrapped around a conductor wire. This inductor size is 4 mm×1.0 mm×130 μm and consists of 30 turns of a 35-μm thick nickel-iron permalloy magnetic core around a 10-μm thick sputtered aluminum conductor lines. A specific inductance of 35 nH/mm2 is achieved at a frequency of 1 MHz. Using these two inductors, switched dc/dc boost converters are demonstrated in a hybrid fashion. The obtained maximum output voltage is approximately double an input voltage of 3 V at switching frequencies of 300 kHz and a duty cycle of 50% for both inductors, demonstrating the usefulness of these integrated planar inductors.

[5] R. A. Best and Z.-D. L. Parra, "Transient response of a static var shunt compensator," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 489-494, 1996.


A typical static VAR shunt compensator has been analyzed so that the step response and steady-state errors can be identified. The results show that the steady-state error is dependent upon the error in the measurement of the currents' phase alone. They also show that an unstable condition can occur, though it should rarely arise in practice. All the theory was verified on a low power (240 V, 3 A) system.

[6] G. Breglio, R. Casavola, A. Cutolo, and P. Spirito, "Bipolar mode field effect transistor (bmfet) as an optically controlled switch: Numerical and experimental results," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 755-767, 1996.


The use of the optically controlled devices is very attractive in power applications where serious problems can occur when high voltage control is required. In this contest, optical switching of electronic devices is instrumental for the electrical insulation between control and powder circuits. On this line of argument we have demonstrated the possibility of optically switching a BMFET (bipolar mode field effect transistor) by means of a low power laser diode. After carrying out a detailed theoretical and numerical analysis of the optically controlled BMFET, we have performed different experimental measurements. In particular, by using a BMFET that can block 1300 V and conducts peak drain currents up to 10 A, we have been able to switch an electrical power up to 1 kW by a laser diode of 25 mW operating at 830 nm. This corresponds to a power gain GP (defined as the ratio between the switched electrical power and the optical power) equal to about to 40 000. Both experimental and numerical results have shown that, for optical switching application, the BMFET works much better than a electrically equivalent bipolar junction transistor (BJT).

[7] M. Carpita and M. Marchesoni, "Experimental study of a power conditioning system using sliding mode control," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 731-742, 1996.


The theory of variable structure systems with sliding mode control has been used to develop a power conditioning system. An experimental system has been developed, and digital simulation of both the power and control systems has been performed. The good agreement between the analytical study and the experimental and simulation results confirms the validity of the proposed control system.

[8] K. Chakrabarty, G. Poddar, and S. Banerjee, "Bifurcation behavior of the buck converter," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 439-447, 1996.


The dc-dc buck converter, a widely used chopper circuit, exhibits subharmonics and chaos if current feedback is used. This paper investigates the dependence of the system behavior on its parameters. The bifurcation phenomena and a mapping of the parameter space have been presented. This knowledge is vital for designing practical circuits.

[9] S. Chen and T. A. Lipo, "Novel soft-switched pwm inverter for ac motor drives," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 653-659, 1996.


A novel soft-switched inverter topology is derived from the passively clamped quasi-resonant link (PCQRL) circuit. By introducing magnetic coupling between the two resonant inductors, the number of auxiliary switches can be reduced from two to one, and only a single magnetic core is required for the resonant dc link. An analysis of this novel PCQRL topology with coupled inductors is presented to reveal the various soft-switching characteristics. In comparison with the conventional passively clamped, continuously resonant dc link inverter, this soft-switched inverter can reduce voltage stresses from more than 2 per unit (pu) to 1.1-1.3 pu. It can also provide soft-switched pulse-width modulated (PWM) operation. Simulation and experiment are performed to backup the analysis.

[10] Y.-T. Chen, D. Y. Chen, Y.-P. Wu, and F.-Y. Shih, "Small-signal modeling of multiple-output forward converters with current-mode control," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 122-131, 1996.


A small-signal model of current-mode multiple-output feedback forward converter has been developed. Based on the model, control performances are analytically expressed, and a compensation scheme is proposed. Comparison of such control with other control schemes is also discussed.

[11] G. C. Cho, G. H. Jung, N. S. Choi, and G. H. Cho, "Analysis and controller design of static var compensator using three-level gto inverter," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 57-65, 1996.


A static var compensator (SVC) using three-level GTO voltage source inverter (VSI) is presented for high-voltage, high-power applications. The three-level VSI has lower harmonic components and higher dc-link voltage than the two-level VSI and thus can be operated at lower switching frequency (fsw < 500 Hz) without excessive harmonic contents. From the DQ-transformed equivalent circuit of the presented SVC system, DC and AC analyses are carried out to know the steady state and the dynamic characteristics of the system. Based on the open-loop transfer function of the system, a controller is designed to achieve fast dynamic response. The experimental results confirm the theoretical analyses and controller design.

[12] J.-G. Cho, J. A. Sabate, G. Hua, and F. C. Lee, "Zero-voltage and zero-current-switching full bridge pwm converter for high-power applications," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 622-628, 1996.


A novel zero-voltage and zero-current-switching (ZVZCS) full-bridge (FB) pulse-width modulated (PWM) converter is proposed. The new converter overcomes the limitations of the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS)-FB-PWM converter, such as high circulating energy, loss of duty cycle, and limited ZVS load range for the lagging-leg switches. By using the dc blocking capacitor and adding a saturable inductor, the primary current during the freewheeling period is reduced to zero, allowing the lagging-leg switches to be operated with zero-current-switching (ZCS). Meanwhile, the leading-leg switches are still operated with ZVS. The new converter is attractive for high-voltage (400-800 V), high-power (2-10 kW) applications where IGBT's are predominantly used as the power switches. The principle of operation, features, and design considerations of the new converter are described and verified on a 2-kW, 100-kHz, IGBT-based experimental circuit.

[13] J.-W. Choi and S.-K. Sul, "Inverter output voltage synthesis using novel dead time compensation," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 221-227, 1996.


In this paper, a novel dead time compensation method is presented that produces inverter output voltages equal to reference voltages. An experimental result is also presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. It shows that the compensation of the dead time is possible up to a sub-microsecond range. Also, the reference voltage can be used as a feedback value, which is essential for sensorless vector control and flux estimation. The method is based on space vector pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategy and it can be carried out automatically by an inverter controller for initial setup without any extra hardware.

[14] S. Choi, P. N. Enjeti, and I. J. Pitel, "Polyphase transformer arrangements with reduced kva capacities for harmonic current reduction in rectifier-type utility interface," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 680-690, 1996.


In this paper polyphase transformer arrangements with reduced kVA capacities are presented for harmonic current reduction in high power diode rectifier-type utility interface systems. Based on the concept of an autotransformer, a 12-pulse rectifier system is realized with a resultant transformer kVA rating of 0.18Po (pu). In this arrangement the 5, 7, 17, 19, etc. harmonics are absent from the utility input line current. In the second scheme an 18-pulse rectifier is realized with the kVA rating of 0.16Po (pu) and the 5, 7, 11, 13, etc. harmonics are canceled in the utility line currents. Analytical design equations are presented to facilitate the design of system components. Simulation results verify the proposed concept, and experimental results are provided from a 208 V, 10 kVA 12-pulse rectifier system. The advantage of employing the proposed system for utility interface of rectifier/PWM-inverter motor drive systems is also explained.

[15] S. Chze, R. Oruganti, and Y. C. Liang, "Automated algorithm for small signal analysis of dc-dc power converters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 132-141, 1996.


Based on a generalized state-space sampled data modeling, an iterative and efficient algorithm for deriving the small signal transfer functions of any dc-dc converter is proposed. This algorithm is suitable to be implemented in a software program as an analytical tool for automated control analysis of general dc-dc converters. Such a tool would reduce considerably the time needed by research engineers in modeling existing and new topologies and control methods. The algorithm proposed is applicable to different kinds of linear and nonlinear control methods. It has been verified on different converters and control methods.

[16] M. J. N. Cumbi, D. W. Shepherd, and L. N. Hulley, "Development of an object-oriented knowledge-based system for power electronic circuit design," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 393-404, 1996.


A knowledge-based (expert) system (KBS) approach to power electronic circuit design is presented. The system, a power electronics and control tool, designated PECT, is written using Smalltalk-80, which integrates the artificial intelligence techniques of production rules for high-level knowledge representation. PECT embraces elements of power circuitry design and contains such features as selection of the circuit configuration, control facility, and power device best suited to a given application. It is interfaced with HSPICE, the commercial version of a general-purpose circuit simulation package, and a semiconductor power device library. Data retrieved from this library is converted into an object-oriented representation database. Analytical hierarchy process reasoning is performed on this data to aid the device selection process. System architecture as well as target design realization process are detailed. The criteria of development and the factors and requirements in building the PECT are also included. An example simulation is given representing a buck-boost converter using a gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) switch model.

[17] E. Dallago, R. Quaglino, and G. Sassone, "Single-cycle quasi-resonant converter with controlled timing of the power switches,"
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