[1] "Proceedings of the 1996 ieee 11th annual power electronics conference and exposition, apec'96. Part 2 (of 2)," in




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Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 187.


A new Class-D voltage source series-loaded resonant inverter topology which can reduce the influences of the stray inductance is proposed. In the conventional Class-D inverter topology, the stray inductance not only results in the overvoltage which gives the voltage stresses to the switches, but also in the high frequency resonant currents during the turn-off transients. The proposed Class-D inverter is superior to the conventional Class-D inverter with respect to the reduction of the problems due to the stray inductance. And it is more suitable for high power and high frequency inverter. The characteristic and the validity of the proposed Class-D inverter are verified by simulation and experimental results.

[77] Y. S. Lee and K. W. Siu, "Single-switch fast response switching regulators with unity power factor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 791.


Based on the example of a single-stage isolated power-factor-corrected power supply (SSIPP or S2IP2) employing a Boost power-factor-correction (PFC) cell, the relationship between the input line voltage and line current of such switching regulators is studied. The conditions for unity power factor are identified. A control scheme to achieve a power factor up to unity is proposed. Computer simulations indicate that such a scheme is effective and feasible.

[78] Y. Ma and K. M. Smedley, "Switching flow graph nonlinear modeling method for multi-state switching converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 103.


Switching converters operating in multi-state switching mode (more than two states) feature multidimensional control over their state variables. In this paper, a large-signal multi-state modeling method is developed based on the switching flow graph method to study the steady-state and dynamic properties of the multi-state switching converters. This modeling method uses graphic presentation to reveal the cause and effect relationship of the dynamics within a multidimensional converter. A three-state buck-boost circuit is conceived with two duty ratios controlling double outputs as an example to test this modeling method. The experimental results confirm the theoretical prediction closely. This multi-state switching flow graph modeling method is very general, easy to use, and accurate. It provides deep physical insight for engineering design.

[79] U. Mader, "Steady-state analysis of a voltage-fed inverter with second-order network and fluorescent lamp load," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 609.


A new analysis method is presented for the steady-state response of electronic ballast circuits. The method gives closed-form expressions for dimming curves, inverter power factor, and circuit sensitivities. This paper applies the method to the voltage-fed inverter topology with second-order network.

[80] L. Malesani, P. Mattavelli, and P. Tomasin, "High-performance hysteresis modulation technique for active filters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 939.


A new, substantial improvement of the hysteresis current control method for Voltage Source Converters is presented. A simple and fast prediction of the hysteresis band is added to a linearized version of the phase-locked-loop control, thus ensuring constant switching frequency and tight control of the position of modulation pulses. This allows high accuracy in tracking highly distorted current waveforms, and minimizes the ripple in multi-phase systems. The technique implementation is very simple and robust, employing only a small number of conventional, inexpensive analog and logic components. It does not require trimmings or tunings, giving the control the capability to adjust itself to the different operating conditions. The proposed method is compared with the most diffused modulation techniques, demonstrating its superior performance in responding to the most demanding conditions met in active filters. The behaviour of the method has been fully verified by simulation and by experimental tests.

[81] M. Mankikar, "Is there power supply standard emerging?" in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 55.


This paper evaluates various power supply standards of the past, present and future, in AC/DC Switchers and DC/DC Converters including for the High Density products. It is generally believed that power supply industry `lacks standards' and most companies pursue their own product development according to their customer's needs. This lack of standards has defined this industry as made up of `large number of small companies.' However, some standards have emerged due to their market leadership or due to large consumption of those products, popularly known as `Defacto Standard'. A case in point is baby AT form factor, which has resulted in large volume consumption, multiple sources and lower prices for PC power supplies. Intel's ATX - a new standard for PC power supplies is superseding baby AT's form factor. What will be the implications of the standards in form of technology and prices for the rest of the industry? In DC/DC converters also there are defined standards. Will all these standards dictate the nature of the industry in the future?

[82] H. Mao, D. Boroyevich, and F. C. Lee, "Multi-level 2-quadrant boost choppers for superconducting magnetic energy storage," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 876.


Multi-level two-quadrant boost choppers are proposed for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and other applications with inductive energy storage such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and switching reluctance motor drives. The advantages of multi-level power conversion includes lower current ripple, lower switching loss and better voltage sharing, as illustrated with a 3-level converter as an example. Its operation principle and PWM strategies are investigated, and a small signal model is developed for control design. Simulation results are used to verify the analysis.

[83] H. Mao, D. Boroyevich, A. Ravindra, and F. C. Lee, "Analysis and design of high frequency three-phase boost rectifiers," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 538.


Analysis and design of high switching frequency, high efficiency, three-phase boost rectifiers are presented. A novel PWM scheme is developed to reduce switch conduction loss, switching loss, and input current ripple. An average method is proposed to calculate switch currents and input current ripple, allowing accurate prediction of switch loss, EMI emissions, and inductor loss. Soft switching, control and system interaction issues are also discussed. A 9 kW, 50 kHz ZVT boost rectifier is designed with high efficiency and light weight.

[84] M. McClure and J. S. Elder, "Constant input power modulation technique for high efficiency boost converter optimized for lithium-ion battery applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 850.


A hysteretic synchronous boost converter which employs a highly efficient constant input power modulation scheme is presented. This scheme varies the charge time of the boost inductor as a function of the inverse of the square of the input voltage. An analysis of the algorithm is presented, as well as a design procedure for a boost converter optimized for the wide voltage range of lithium-ion batteries. Data is included describing the efficiency of the converter compared to peak current type hysteretic converters, as well as plots depicting actual converter run times while operating from a lithium-ion battery. Finally, a new integrated circuit which employs the constant input power modulation technique is introduced.

[85] M. Mino, K. Tsukamoto, K. Yanagisawa, A. Tago, and T. Yachi, "Compact buck-converter using a thin-film inductor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 422.


We have developed a compact buck-converter using a thin-film inductor that is suitable for portable electronic equipment. The inductor consists of planar Cu coils and CoZrTa magnetic layers on a Si substrate; it is fabricated by a dry process. The converter is 3-mm thick and 10×6 mm in area; it operates at 1.6 MHz and has an efficiency of up to 85%.

[86] S. Mir, I. Husain, and M. E. Elbuluk, "Energy efficient c-dump converters for switched reluctance motors," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 968.


Two energy-efficient converter topologies, derived from the conventional C-dump converter, are proposed for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. The proposed topologies overcome the limitations of the conventional C-dump converter, and could reduce the overall cost of the SRM drive. The voltage ratings of the dump capacitor and the switching devices in the proposed converters are reduced to the supply voltage (Vdc) level compared to being twice the supply voltage (2Vdc) in the conventional C-dump converter. Also, the size of the dump inductor is considerably reduced. The converters have simple control that allows the motor phase current to freewheel during chopping mode. Simulation and experimental results of the converter are presented and discussed.

[87] C. S. Moo, Y. C. Chuang, and C. R. Lee, "New power factor correction circuit for electronic ballasts with series-load resonant inverter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 628.


This paper presents an efficient, small-sized, and cost-effective power factor correction scheme for high-frequency series-resonant electronic ballasts. The proposed scheme introduces additional small energy tanks processing partial power and thus can perform the function of input current shaping. Theoretical and experimental results prove that the electronic ballast incorporating with only few reactive components can achieve nearly unity power factor and very low harmonic distortion.

[88] C. S. Moo and P. P. Mok, "Multi-resonant boost converter as active filter for power factor correction," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 166.


This paper proposes the application of a multi-resonant boost converter for active power factor correction. A simple and straightforward control method is introduced featuring true zero-voltage switching at sinusoidal input current. Experimental results show high efficiency despite high switching frequencies, while the voltage stress on the devices remains moderate.

[89] G. Moschopoulos, P. Jain, and G. Joos, "Practical design considerations for a zero-voltage switched power factor correction converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 172.


A zero-voltage switched (ZVS) PWM boost power factor correction (PFC) converter is proposed in this paper. ZVS operation is achieved with a simple auxiliary resonant circuit that is activated for only a small fraction of the switching period and handles much less power than the main power circuit. The practical issues involved in designing and operating the converter such as the design of the power circuit and the implementation of the control circuit are examined in the paper. The feasibility of the converter is shown with results obtained from an experimental prototype.

[90] B. Narveson, "How many isolated dc-dc's do you really need?" in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 692.


This paper discusses a new power system design alternative for designs where isolated dc-dc modules have traditionally been used in distributed power architectures. A new generation of non-isolated integrated switching regulators (ISRs) that provide a wide variety of positive and negative voltages are now available to reduce cost, decrease board area, increase reliability and reduce time to market. Included in this paper is a detailed comparison of the design alternatives and benefits.

[91] V. M. Nguyen and C. Q. Lee, "Indirect implementations of sliding-mode control law in buck-type converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 111.


Some practical methods for implementing the sliding-mode control law to control the buck-type converters are introduced. The control equations are derived from the basic sliding-mode control law to accommodate the conventional fixed-frequency pwm control method. As a result, the overall feedback control systems can be expressed under a form similar to state-feedback control where the voltage and current of the output capacitor are sensed and controlled. With the switching frequency is maintained to be constant (not varied over a wide range as in the original law), these control techniques are insensitive to power circuit parameter changes. The output voltage errors in these implementations are proven to be converged to zero exponentially similarly to the cases implementing the basic sliding-mode control equation. These control implementations can be applied to both constant output voltage regulation (as in popular dc-dc converters) and to time-varying output voltage tracking (as in switching power amplifiers).

[92] Y. Nishida, "New simple topology for three-phase buck-mode pfc rectifier," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 531.


The author proposes a new and simple topology for three-phase buck-mode PFC-rectifier which obtains a very high input-power-factor, high-quality input-line-currents and a regulated output-voltage in buck-mode-range. The proposed rectifier, obtained by modifying a conventional simple topology for three-phase boost-mode PFC, employs new principal of current-synthesis and a simple and unique modulation-technique to improve the input-characteristics. In this paper, the proposed topology, principal of the current-synthesis and the modulation-technique are introduced. Then, experimental results obtained from a 2 [kW] prototype-converter are shown to confirm the validity of the theory.

[93] Y. Nishida and A. Maeda, "Simplified discontinuous-switching-modulation for three-phase current-fed pfc-converters and experimental study for the effects," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 552.


The authors propose a new modulation scheme to obtain discontinuous-switching in instantaneous-current-controlled three-phase buck and buck-boost PFC converters. Since the proposed discontinuous-switching-modulation eliminates the switching-actions which produce the highest energy-dissipation in each modulation-period, the average-switching-loss is reduced to a half. The loss-reduction-effect is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Further, a simple scheme to generate the discontinuous-switching-patterns in the instantaneous-current-controller is introduced. The validity of the theory and applicability of the discontinuous-switching-modulation in practice are confirmed through experimental-results obtained from 2[kW] prototype-converters.

[94] F. Nourbakhsh, R. K. Dhawan, and M. Strandell, "Novel 9 kw transformerless high frequency ac/dc to dc converter with isolation," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 869.


A new topology called `Phaser' is introduced. The attractive features of this topology are - elimination of high frequency transformer, isolated output, high power density therefore very light weight, high overall efficiency, and simpler design, therefore smaller design cycle. The paper presents the design, simulation implementation and experimental results for a 9 kW output constant current plasma metal cutter based on this topology. Because of the elimination of high frequency transformer, the design cycle reduces substantially. Also, there is a reduction in the components count. The topology is able to achieve at least twice the power density compared to existing converter designs.

[95] J. A. O'Connor, "Converter optimization for powering low voltage, high performance microprocessors," in
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