[1] "Proceedings of the 1996 ieee 11th annual power electronics conference and exposition, apec'96. Part 2 (of 2)," in




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Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 299.


This paper presents a new family of PWM Soft-Switching Converters which can operate without switch voltage and current stresses in high switching frequency for a wide range of load. To illustrate the operating principle of this new converters a detailed study including simulations and experimental tests is carried out for the boost converter. The validity of these new converters is guaranteed by the obtained results.

[134] V. Vlatkovic, M. J. Schutten, and R. L. Steigerwald, "Auxiliary series resonant converter: A new converter for high-voltage, high-power applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 493.


The converter presented in this paper has been designed to meet high-quality power requirements in high-voltage, high-power applications such as x-ray imaging, traveling wave tube R.F. generation, etc. The new converter is based on a series resonant converter (SRC) which is modified by adding low power auxiliary circuitry. The so obtained auxiliary SRC (ASRC) maintains zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for both main and auxiliary devices over the entire operating range. The ASRC can operate and regulate voltage even at no load conditions. The additional reactive energy used to maintain soft switching and voltage regulation at light loads is controllable independently of converter load. This contributes to higher efficiency, especially at heavy loads. The ASRC control is identical to that of a standard SRC, so fast and robust transient response can be obtained with relatively simple controller structure. The paper also presents converter analysis and design, and experimental results from a 100 kW, 150 kV prototype.

[135] A. von Jouanne and P. Enjeti, "Design considerations for an inverter output filter to mitigate the effects of long motor leads in asd applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 579.


In this paper, design considerations for an inverter output filter to mitigate the effects of long motor leads in ASD applications are presented. It is shown by analysis that for a given length of cable, reducing the dv/dt of the PWM inverter output voltage applied to the cable below a critical value will eliminate over voltages due to voltage reflections. Design issues for a low pass filter at the inverter output terminals to reduce the dv/dt of the inverter output pulse are examined in detail. The filter operation is verified for the entire variable frequency range of the inverter. The performance of the filter is evaluated in simulation, and experimentally on a 208 V L-L system and on a 480 V commercially available ac motor drive (PWM IGBT). The proposed inverter output filter is then compared with a motor terminal shunt filter also designed to reduce over voltages and ringing at the motor terminals.

[136] J. Waite and T. G. Wilson, Jr., "Use of simulation to understand and predict switching losses in a two-stage power factor corrected ac-to-dc converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 88.


This paper describes how a piecewise linear circuit simulation model for the switching power MOSFET is used to understand and predict the switching losses in a two transistor forward converter and power factor corrected boost converter. Predicted losses are shown to correlate closely with the measured losses obtained from drain voltage and current waveforms.

[137] A. D. Walker and D. Williams, "Thermal design considerations in the design and application of dc - dc converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 990.


Power densities and power supply components have improved such that the major obstacle in using DC - DC converters is effectively removing the heat from these devices. This paper shows practical and theoretical heat removal issues through conduction, natural convection and forced air convection. Thermal resistance and its applications are discussed. Thermal derating and how it applies to the converter is also discussed.

[138] R. Watson, W. Chen, G. Hua, and F. C. Lee, "Component development for a high-frequency ac distributed power system," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 657.


The design and implementation of a high-frequency AC distributed power system is presented. The system utilizes a 300 kHz, 50 V peak soft-transition square wave for AC voltage distribution. Load converter designs consisting of 50 W regulated resonant rectifiers yield sinusoidal bus currents. This, coupled with the soft-transition bus voltage wave shape, reduces the potential for noise interaction with the host system. Bus regulation is accomplished through a simplified front-end design consisting of a boost PFC converter cascaded with a soft-switched half-bridge inverter. Experimental results are presented for operation at 5 Vdc and 100 W output.

[139] D. Weng and S. Yuvarajan, "Analysis of a boost-type power factor corrector using a conductance model," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 835.


The paper develops a conductance model to analyze the performance of a boost-type power factor corrector. The Fourier components of the equivalent conductance is used to compute the harmonic distortion in the input current. The technique is extended to a converter in which a second harmonic PWM is used to reduce the total harmonic distortion. The analytical results obtained for the converter using the model are compared with the experimental results.

[140] R. V. White and F. M. Miles, "Principles of fault tolerance," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 18.


The demand for continuously available electronic systems increases every day. Transaction processing, communications systems, and critical processes all require non-stop, fault tolerant operation. Creating a fault tolerant or highly available system can be achieved by following four basic principles. This paper is a tutorial that presents those four principles after reviewing some fundamentals of reliability and availability. It concludes with an expanded discussion on implementing redundancy. Special considerations for high availability and fault tolerance in distributed power systems are highlighted.

[141] D. A. Williams, "Tutorial on emi characterization of switching regulators," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 333.


This paper discusses how to characterize the conducted and radiated EMI from a switching regulator power supply. Included in this paper are considerations and recommendations for developing an EMI test plan, experimental test wiring, input power conditioning, experimental practicalities, and recommendations for the end user of the power supply.

[142] M. K. W. Wu, C. K. Tse, and P. Chan, "Integrated cad tool for switching power supply design with electromagnetic interference prediction," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 340.


A computer-aided tool for the design of switching power supplies integrating layout editor, auto-router, component library builder and EMI simulator is presented. The software takes on a modular approach and develops the PCB layout with EMI prediction. The prediction of EMI is achieved by SPICE simulation with suitable model assignments of EMI sources, components and PCB tracks. An off-line forward converter is built and measured to verify the simulated result. Finally, a performance index is introduced to act as an indicator for the EMC performance of a given PCB layout.

[143] T. F. Wu, T. H. Yu, J. C. Hung, and H. P. Yang, "Analysis and design of dimmable electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps using fuzzy controller," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 648.


In this paper, a rule-base fuzzy logic controller (FLC) used for controlling the output power of a series resonant parallel loaded (SRPL) inverter which is applied for dimmable electronic ballasts is presented. A plasma model of a fluorescent lamp is introduced as the load of the SRPL inverter. The component values of the power stage as well as two switching frequencies according to desired two distinct power levels can be, therefore, determined. The output power of the lamp is controlled by varying the ratio of two time intervals for which the two frequencies last respectively. This mechanism is achieved by using a 25-rule fuzzy FLC. A prototype with the FLC which is implemented on an 8-bit microprocessor with a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architecture is built. The experimental measurements are used to verify the analyses.

[144] Y. Yoshioka, S. Konishi, N. Eguchi, M. Yamamoto, K. Endo, K. Maruyama, and K. Hino, "Self-commutated static flicker compensator for arc furnaces," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 891.


To suppress a flicker that occurs in a power system with arc furnaces, the authors have developed a self-commutated Static Flicker Compensator (SFC). To verify SFC's compensation performance, the authors performed experiments with a mini-model and an analog simulator. As a result of these experiments, it was confirmed that the current deviation of the SFC output current was less than the desired value of 5%, and the response time of current control was about 1 ms. We also tested the flicker compensating effect with the actual SFC which was installed in a power system. The SFC achieved a flicker suppression factor of 36%, and has been operating trouble free since April 1995.

[145] T. Zaitsu, T. Shigehisa, M. Shoyama, and T. Ninomiya, "Piezoelectric transformer converter with pwm control," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 279.


Piezoelectric transformer(PT) converter with PWM is presented. The active-clamp technique makes it possible to control the output voltage with PWM even if the PT converter operates in a resonant fashion. The PT converter with PWM control was implemented on a printed circuit board. The line and load regulation was successfully achieved under the input-voltage variation of 20 to 30 V, Vo = 5 V, Io = 0-4 A, and fs = 2.08 MHz. Maximum efficiency achieved 82%.

[146] R. Zane and D. Maksimovic, "Nonlinear-carrier control for high-power-factor rectifiers based on flyback, cuk or sepic converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 814.


In this paper, nonlinear-carrier (NLC) control is proposed for high-power-factor rectifiers based on flyback, Cuk or Sepic converters operated in the continuous conduction mode. In the NLC controller, the switch duty ratio is determined by comparing a signal proportional to the integral of the switch current with a periodic nonlinear carrier waveform. The shape of the NLC waveform is determined so that the resulting input line current follows the input line voltage, as required for unity-power-factor rectification. A simple exponential carrier waveform generator is described. Using the NLC controller, input line voltage sensing, error amplifier in the current-shaping loop, and the multiplier/divider circuitry in the voltage feedback loop are eliminated. The simple, high-performance controller is well-suited for integrated-circuit implementation. Results of experimental verification on a 150 W flyback rectifier are presented.

[147] Y. Zhao and T. A. Lipo, "Approach to modeling and field-oriented control of a three phase induction machine with structural unbalance," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 380.


Structurally unbalanced operation of an induction machine typically occurs during emergency conditions. A unified modeling and control approach for a three phase induction machine drive with a particular structural unbalance (one phase open) is developed based directly on the resulting asymmetrical machine structure. With a new stator winding decoupling transformation developed in this paper, the machine (with one phase open) is made equivalent to a two phase machine with perpendicular d-q stator windings having different numbers of turns. Based on this machine model, field-oriented control strategy is developed to guarantee the desired independent control of rotor flux and electromagnetic torque in spite of the unbalanced condition. The method employed may be extended to other type of structural unbalances.

[148] L. Zhen and L. Xu, "On-line fuzzy tuning of indirect field oriented induction machine drives," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1996, pp. 369.


This paper presents an on-line fuzzy tuning scheme for Indirect Field Orientation (IFO) controlled induction machine drives. A fuzzy controller is used to regulate the speed, and another two fuzzy compensators are combined to correct detuning of field orientation. Since detuning effects of IFO induction machine drive is minimized by the new fuzzy control scheme, the induction machine can achieve good performance in terms of overshoot, steady state error, torque disturbance and variable speed tracking. Efficiency and torque/ampere capability are also enhanced. The results obtained by laboratory implementation are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed on-line fuzzy tuning scheme.
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