Чёрные и цветные сплавы




НазваниеЧёрные и цветные сплавы
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Урок 4


Тема. Чёрные и цветные сплавы.

Грамматика. Конструкция «сложное дополнение с инфинитивом» (повторение).


Упр. 1. Вспомните значения следующих словосочетаний и подберите к ним соответствующий перевод из правого столбца.


  1. ferrous metals

  2. the following method

  3. principal materials

  4. various kinds of steels

  5. alloying elements

  6. heat treatment

  7. according to

  8. take into consideration

  9. withstand high pressure

  10. non-ferrous metals

    1. термообработка

    2. легирующие элементы

    3. в соответствии с

    4. выдерживать большое давление

    5. чёрные металлы

    6. принимать во внимание

    7. основные материалы

    8. цветные металлы

    9. различные виды стали

    10. следующий метод


Упр. 2. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на конструкцию «Сложное дополнение с инфинитивом».


  1. We know the engineers to use this method.

Мы знаем, что инженеры применяют этот метод. (вообще)

  1. We know the engineers to be using this method.

Мы знаем, что инженеры применяют этот метод. (в данный момент, период)

  1. We know the engineers to have used this method.

Мы знаем, что инженеры применили этот метод. (в прошлом)

  1. We know this method to be used in industry.

Мы знаем, что этот метод применяется в промышленности. (вообще)

  1. We know this method to have been used in industry.

Мы знаем, что этот метод применялся в промышленности. (в прошлом)


  1. Everybody expects the international exhibition “Oil and Gas” to attract many experts.

  2. Scientists believe the invention of plastics to have made a revolution in industry.

  3. Newspapers reported the British oil firms to have developed rich oil deposits in the North Sea.

  4. Metallurgists want modern rolling mills to be operated by electronic devices.

  5. The engineers found oil and gas transportation through pipe­lines to be the most economical method.

  6. The majority of scientists consider oil to be of organic origin.

  7. We know Russia to be developing offshore oil and gas deposits in the Barents Sea.

  8. Recently the newspapers have reported Czech researchers to have invented a new plastic material capable of withstanding 2,000°C.

  9. We know electronic equipment and turbine parts to be produced by different fabricating processes.

  10. A processing engineer considers the choice of the most economical manufacturing processes to be of great importance.

  11. A long time ago people knew iron to be cast into various shapes.

  12. We know Russia to cooperate with different countries in many branches of industry.



Упр. 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на союзы:


both ... and – как ... так и

either ... or – или ... или

neither ... nor – ни ... ни


  1. Neither temperature nor pressure was changed during the experiment.

  2. Advanced production processes and unites both for continuous casting and rolling of metals were developed at the Research Institute of Metallurgical Engineering.

  3. The mechanical properties of metals can be improved either by alloying or by heat treatment.

  4. The powerful hydraulic press built in Russia for France was intended to stamp items both from steel and light alloys.

  5. The equipment at many machine-building plants of Russia is either being replaced or modernized.

  6. When the Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod pipeline was being built the USA delivered neither pipes nor compressor stations to the USSR.

  7. To achieve good results in the development of new technological processes both design work and theoretical research should be applied.

  8. In spite of the great progress of chemistry neither plastics nor other synthetic materials can replace metals in the majority of applications.

  9. Pipes can be manufactured either by the hot-rolling or cold-rolling methods.


Упр. 4. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Какое слово является главным и какими способами выражено его определение (я)? Переведите на русский язык.

nuclear physics - ядерная физика

nuclear physics achievements - достижения ядерной физики


1. the oil industry

the oil industry development

2. the steel surface

the steel surface corrosion

the steel surface corrosion destruction

3. the pressure losses

the pressure losses prevention

the pressure losses prevention methods

4. the high temperature

the high temperature wear

the high temperature steel wear

the high temperature steel wear resistance

5. atmospheric corrosion

the atmospheric metals corrosion

the atmospheric metals corrosion resistance

6. the hole temperature

the bottom hole temperature

the static bottom hole temperature

the static bottom hole temperature readings


7. oil transportation
oil pipeline transportation

buried oil pipeline transportation

8. welding technique

arс welding technique

gas shielded arс welding technique

inert gas shielded arс welding technique

tungsten electrode inert gas shielded arс welding technique


Упр. 5. Переведите следующие предложения.


  1. The discovery of radium has changed the fundamental atom structure conception.

  2. Any construction failures may lead to the life loss and costly damage.

  3. Today the development of modern high-speed transportation power equipment has increased the importance of the engineering materials fatigue properties.

  4. A current major problem in the manned spacecraft design is the vibration of the structure produced by large rocket engines.

  5. The electron microscope development gave a better understanding of the metals fatigue phenomenon.

  6. Many scientists are working now on the ways to control the internal-combustion engines harmful emissions.

  7. In jet engines high-strength composite materials may replace titanium alloys in some applications.

  8. The titanium consumption growth has increased more than it was predicted.


Упр. 6. Слова к тексту “Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys”.


1. pig iron ['pIgaIqn] n

чушковый чугун

Pig iron is an oblong (продолговатый) mass of iron extracted from ore and shaped in a mould.

2. cast ['kRst] iron n

чугун

Cast iron is brittle nevertheless it is the most widespread ferrous material.

3. wrought [rLt] iron n

пудлинговое железо

Wrought iron was the most widely used form of iron in the past.

4. mild [maIld] steel n

мягкая сталь

Mild steels are low-carbon steels which are machined easily.

5. carbon ['kRbqn] steel n

углеродистая сталь

Carbon steels contain not only carbon and iron but manganese, copper and such impurities as sulphur and phosphorus.

6. alloy ['xlOI] steel n

легированная сталь

Alloy steels contain more manganese and copper than carbon steels, besides they contain other alloying elements.

7. tool [tHl] steel n

инструментальная сталь

Tool steels possess high qualities as they must meet severe service demands.

8. point [pOInt] n

пункт; точка

The starting point of our journey is Moscow.

9. puddling ['pAdlIN] n

пудлингование

Puddling is a process of producing wrought iron by removing carbon.

10. roughly ['rAflI] adv

приблизительно

The resistance of aluminium alloys to corrosion is imparted by the presence of roughly 0.25% copper as an alloying element.

11. percentage [pq'sentIG] n

процентное содержание

The percentage of school leavers that go to universities is about forty per cent.

12. chromium ['kroumjqm] n

хром

Different types of stainless steels contain from 12 to 30% chromium , from 0 to 22% nickel and many other alloying elements.

13. molybdenum [mO'lIbdInqm] n

молибден

Molybdenum is an important alloying element in steels and cast irons used in aircraft building and the automotive industry.

14. vanadium [vq'neIdjqm] n

ванадий

Vanadium as an alloying element increases steel strength and corrosion resistance.

15. tungsten ['tANstqn] n

вольфрам

Tungsten is a very heavy and refractory metal used in electrical and radio engineering.

16. requirement [rIk'waIqmqnt] n

требование

The industry fuel requirements are great.

17. per cent [pq'sqnt] n

процент

One per cent equals to one part out of a total of 100 parts.

18. silicon ['sIlIkqn] n

кремний

Silicon is a non-metallic element which is found combined with oxygen in quartz and sandstone.

19. manganese ["mxNgq'nJz] n

марганец

Large reserves of manganese are on the bottom of the oceans.

20. sulphur ['sAlfq] n

сера

The more sulphur is in oil, the worse is its quality.

21. phosphorus ['fOsfqrqs] n

фосфор

Phosphorus is used in metallurgy and agriculture.

22. modify ['mOdIfaI] n

видоизменять, модифицировать

The Industrial Revolution modified the whole structure of the English society.


23. scrap [skrxp] n


металлолом, скрап

Metal scrap can be melted down for re-use.

24. zinc [zINk] n

цинк

Zink is used in alloys and in coating iron subjects to give them protection against corrosion.

25. possess [pO'zes] v

обладать

Different workers possess different skills.

26. ductility [dAk'tIlItI] n

пластичность, ковкость (при растяжении)

The metals which can be shaped while cold possess ductility.

27. malleability ["mxlIq'bIlItI] n

пластичность, ковкость (при сжатии)

Malleability is the property of metals due to which they can be pressed into a new form.

28. toughness ['tAfnIs] n

жесткость

Toughness of some plastics is very high.

29. brittleness ['brItlnIs] n

хрупкость

Brittleness of carbon and low alloy steels increases at low temperatures.

30. hardness ['hRdnIs] n

твёрдость

Diamond hardness cannot be compared with hardness of very hard metals.

31. chief [tSJf] a

главный, основной

The chief metals used in machine-building are ferrous ones.

32. primary ['praImqrI] a

главный, основной

The primary feature of titanium is the combination of light weight, high strength and high corrosion resistance.

33. resistance [rI'zIstqns] n

сопротивляемость, сопротивление

Aluminium alloys that do not contain copper as a major alloying element have high resistance to corrosion by many chemicals.

34. wear [wFq] resistance n

износостойкость

High wear resistance of titanium has made it a very important engineering material.

35. desirable [dI'zaIqrqbl] a

желательный, нужный

The knowledge of foreign languages is desirable for modern specialists.

36. lead [led] n

свинец

In the past lead was used for water pipes.

37. tin [tIn] n

олово

Tin is not corroded by fruit juices or by any of the vegetables therefore tin cans are widely used in the food industry.

38. proper [p'rOpq] a

правильный, надлежащий

Is this the proper tool for the job?

39. familiar [fq'mIljq] a

хорошо знакомый

Every processing engineer should be familiar with metal properties.


40. strength ['streNT] n


прочность

One of the factors that contributes to the strength of alloy steels is the presence of alloying elements in the ferrite.

41. shearing ['SIqrIN] strength n

прочность на сдвиг

42. tensile [tensaIl] strength n

прочность на разрыв

43. compressive [kOmp'resiv] strength n

прочность на сжатие

Shearing, tensile and compressive strengths of metals and alloys are measured in laboratories before using engineering materials in practice.

44. ability [q'bIlItI] n

способность

Lead ability to improve machinability of brasses is well-known.

45. load [loud] n

нагрузка

The ultimate (предельный) load of materials is the load which a material can withstand before breaking.

46. as (it was) mentioned above [q'bAv]

как было упомянуто

As it was mentioned above, steel is produced from pig iron.

47. in addition (syn. besides)

кроме того

Aluminium provides a high ratio of strength to weight; in addition, it is of low cost.

48. in (to) some degree [dIg'rJ]

в какой-то степени

Aluminium alloys with some amount of alloying elements of copper, magnesium and zinc have worse corrosion resistance in some degree than without them.

49. one more ['wAn'mL]

ещё один

Copper is used in electrical and radio engineering. This material finds use in one more application – in sun power engineering (гелиоэнергетика).

50. on the basis ['beIsIs] of

на основе

On the basis of Chernov’s theory metallurgists can regulate the properties of steels.



Прочитайте текст “Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys”. Выполните следующие задания.


  1. Составьте список чёрных и цветных металлов.

  2. Скажите, какими свойствами обладают чёрные и цветные металлы.

  3. Найдите в тексте конструкции «Сложное дополнение с инфинитивом».


Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys


Both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys are largely used in all branches of machine-building. As it was mentioned above they are fabricated into desired shapes by the following processes: casting, rolling, forging, pressing, stamping, machining and joining.

The principle ferrous materials used are: pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron and steel. Everybody knows various kinds of steels to be applied in industry – mild steels, carbon steels and alloy steels.

Pig iron may be said to be the starting point in the production of all other ferrous materials. Metallurgists consider it to contain from 92 to 97 per cent iron. The remainder is carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur and phosphorus.

Cast iron is pig iron which has been modified in structure by remelting usually with the addition of steel scrap and by casting it into moulds.

Wrought iron which is now seldom produced is the iron from which nearly all carbon and most of sulphur, phosphorus, etc., have been removed by a process known as puddling.

Steel may be roughly defined as an alloy of iron and carbon. The percentage of carbon may bе varied from almost zero in mild steels, up to 2.14 in some tool steels. Besides, alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt and copper are known to be present in these steels. As is known, if metallurgists want to change the properties of the steel they vary either the composition of it by alloying or use heat treatment, or both.

Non-ferrous alloys are alloys which have been developed on the basis of non-ferrous metals. They are defined according to their dominant element.

Copper-base alloys are used where high thermal or electrical conductivity is the chief requirement.

Aluminium-base alloys are used where light weight is a primary requirement. It should be noted that they are widely used due to their high corrosion resistance. Besides, aluminium-base alloys have desirable combination of mechanical properties with thermal and electrical conductivity.

Magnesium-base alloys are used where light weight is needed.

There are also lead-base alloys, tin-base alloys, zinc-base alloys, nickel-base alloys and others.

Both ferrous and non-ferrous metals are known to possess in some degree the following properties: elasticity, ductility, malle­ability, toughness, brittleness, hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance.

Each of these properties should be taken into consideration in choosing the proper production processes. In addition, the processing engineer is required to be familiar with one more property – the mechanical strength of materials. It may be defined as the ability of a construction to withstand tensile, compressive and shearing stresses under all kinds of loads and under different temperatures.


Упр. 7. Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов при помощи суффиксов: - tion (- sion), - er, - ment, - ty. Переведите на русский язык.


fabricate, apply, consider, remain, modify, add, produce, remove, define, vary, compose, treat, develop, conduct, require, resist, compress.


Упр. 8. Закончите следующие предложения, используя текст “Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys”.


  1. Both ferrous and non-ferrous metals are fabricated by ...

  2. Various kinds of steels such as ... are applied in industry.

  3. The starting point of all ferrous materials is ...

  4. Cast iron is modified from … …

  5. Wrought iron is now ...

  6. Steel is defined as ...

  7. Alloying elements are ... in steels.

  8. The properties of the steel may be varied either by ... or…

  9. Non-ferrous alloys are defined ... their dominant element.

  10. Thermal conductivity is the principal property in ... alloys.

  11. Aluminium-base alloys possess important properties such as ... … and … …

  12. The ability of a construction to withstand tensile, compressive and shearing stresses is…


Упр. 9. Переведите следующие предложения и словосочетания:


  1. Percentage of silicon should be …

Percentage of carbon varies the structure of …

Percentage of manganese influences …

  1. Addition of sulphur changes …

Addition of tungsten improves …

Addition of copper is considered as …

  1. According to the percentage of phosphorus …

According to the requirements …

According to the desirable properties …

  1. Due to the addition of alloying elements …

Due to high wear resistance of steel …

Due to high brittleness of carbon…

  1. On the basis of the knowledge of metal science …

On the basis of primary requirements of industry …

On the basis of modified structures of alloys…

  1. Under all kinds of loads …

Under given conditions …

Under proper conditions …


Упр. 10. Переведите предложения на английский язык:


  1. В нашей стране производятся как цветные, так и чёрные металлы.

  2. Существует много видов стали, свойства которых зависят от легирующих элементов и других добавок.

  3. Процентное содержание углерода в чёрных металлах колеблется от 0 до почти 2%.

  4. Как было упомянуто выше, учёные хотят, чтобы дорогие цветные металлы в некоторых случаях были заменены пластмассами.

  5. Благодаря высокой коррозионной стойкости и лёгкому весу, сплавы на основе алюминия применяются во многих отраслях промышленности.

  6. Кроме того, инженеры считают, что некоторые сплавы алюминия обладают высокой механической прочностью.

  7. Как известно, на основе железа разработано огромное количество сплавов, состав и свойства которых изменяют либо легированием, либо термообработкой, либо тем и другим.

  8. Инженер-технолог должен определять способность материала выдер­живать нагрузки как в обычных условиях, так и при повышенных нагрузках.

  9. Высокое процентное содержание серы и фосфора в чёрных металлах не улучшает ни их свойства, ни их структуру, поэтому их удаляют.

  10. Сочетание нужных свойств чёрных и цветных металлов определяет их область применения в промышленности.

  11. В соответствии с требованиями промышленности металлурги улучшают как структуру, так и качество выпускаемого металла.



Упр. 11. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, опираясь на текст “Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys”.


    1. Which alloys are used in all branches of machine-building?

    2. How are ferrous and non-ferrous alloys fabricated?

    3. What are the main ferrous materials?

    4. In what way can the properties of steels be improved?

    5. What non-ferrous alloys are used in industry?

    6. What are the main properties of aluminium-base alloys?

    7. What is mechanical strength?


Упр. 12. Прочитайте текст “Wicked Tricks of Tin” и ответьте на следующие вопросы. Выполните задания, следующие после текста.



  1. Where did Captain Scott fit out an expedition in 1910? What for?

  2. Why did the expedition leave behind boxes of food and cans of kerosene?

  3. What happened to the cans of kerosene?

  4. What fact known since Middle ages had the explorers ignored?

  5. What wicked trick did Russian winter play on the buyers of tin from Holland, a well-equipped expedition to Siberia and tin buttons on soldiers’ uniforms?

  6. What helped scientists understand the phenomenon of tin disintegration?


Wicked Tricks of Tin


fit [fIt] v out – снаряжать

terra ['terq] incognita [In'kOgnItq] – неизвестная страна

desert ['dezqt] n – пустыня

destination ["destI'neISqn] n – место назначения

preсede [prJ'sJd] v – предшествовать

misfortune [mIs'fLtSqn] n – беда, неудача, несчастье

solder ['sOldq] v – паять

tin plague [pleIg] n – оловянная чума

wicked ['wIkId] a – злой

ensure [In'Suq] v – обеспечивать

disintegrate [dI'sIntIgreIt] v – разлагаться, распадаться на части


In 1910 Captain Robert Scott, the famous British polar explorer, fitted out an expedition to the South Pole, at that time still a terra incognita. The expedition went forward through the lifeless ice desert of the Antarctic, leaving behind small boxes of food and cans of kerosene for the explores to use them on the way back.

At the beginning of 1912 the expedition finally reached its destination but to the men’s great disappointment they found a note there which made it clear that they had been preceded by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen one month earlier. However, Captain Scott’s worst misfortune was yet to come. On the way back they found out that the expedition was left without kerosene: the cans were empty. The kerosin had leaked out. The people, exhausted, freezing and hungry, could not either warm themselves up or prepare anything to eat.

The result was awful – Captain Scott and his friends soon died. What was the reason for the mysterious disappearance of the kerosene? Why did the expedition so carefully planned end so tragically? What was Captain Scott’s mistake?

It was quite simple: the kerosene cans had been soldered with tin. The explorers were ignorant of the fact that at freezing temperatures tin “catches a cold”, first losing its luster and becoming dull grey and then turning into powder. This phenomenon – “tin plague” – led to the tragedy of the expedition.

Meanwhile this fact was known as early as the Middle Ages.

At the end of the 19th century a train carrying bars of tin was sent from Holland to Russia. When the cars were unsealed in Moscow they contained some grey and useless powder – it was Russian winter which had played a wicked trick on the buyers of tin.

At about the same period a well-equipp­ed expedition set out for Siberia. It seemed everything had been taken care of to ensure its success, except one thing: tin dishes had been taken. The result was that after a while spoons and bowls had to be carved from wood if the expedition was to go any further.

At the very beginning of the 20th century a shocking incident occurred at an army in St. Petersburg: it was discovered, that all tin buttons had vanished from the soldiers’ uniforms and the boxes that were supposed to contain such buttons were full of a grey powder.

The contents of the boxes were analyzed. The substance in them was tin. It was the chemical phenomenon known as ‘tin plague’.

What are the processes that cause tin to disintegrate?

Only after discovering X-rays metallurgists enabled to take a look inside the metal and study its crystalline structure. Tin (and other metals) seems to have different crystalline forms under different circumstances. The properties of different crystalline forms differ from the properties of the original metal. Thus, at a temperature of minus 33°C tin turns into a powder (tin plague) and at a temperature below13°C a new modification – grey tin – is formed. It loses the properties of metal and becomes a semiconductor.

Выполните следующие задания:


  1. Определите основную идею текста.

  2. Разделите текст на логические части.

  3. Озаглавьте каждую часть текста.

  4. Составьте тезисы к каждой смысловой части текста.

  5. Напишите заключительную часть текста.

  6. Составьте аннотацию текста.



Упр. 13. Переведите текст “History of Wrought Iron”, пользуясь словарём. Выполните задания, следующие после текста.


History of Wrought Iron


There is a town in England with a strange name Ironbridge near the Ironbridge Gorge. What does the name of the town come from?

For 3,000 years iron has been one of the essential features of human civilization, and for the greater part of that period wrought iron has been the most commonly used form of the metal. Today the manufacture of wrought iron has almost stopped.

Many of the most important innovations in iron manufacture in eighteenth century England took place in the Ironbridge Gorge, including the experiments in the manufacture of wrought iron using mineral fuel. There were many eighteenth and nineteenth century wrought-iron works in the area which employed puddling process.

Not far from Ironbridge there were wrought iron forges which included puddling furnaces, a steam hammer and a rolling mill. Now one of the forges is a museum which demonstrates the manufacture of wrought iron in the puddling furnaces.

The Ironbridge Gorge is said to be the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. The district's rich resources of coal, lime­stone and iron ore were used as early as the sixteenth century.

In 1709 Abraham Darby first smelted iron with coke. Darby'a discovery led to the making of the first iron wheels, railways and cast iron steam-engine cylinders. In 1787 the ironmaster John Wilkinson launched an iron barge: it floated. However, it was the erection of the cast-iron bridge in 1779 which brought real fame to this part of England and provided the name for the town.


Задание 1.


  1. Определите основную идею текста.

  2. Разделите текст на смысловые части.

  3. Определите основную мысль каждой части.

  4. Напишите заключительную часть текста.

  5. Составьте аннотацию текста.


Задание 2. Прокомментируйте следующие тезисы, используя выражения из задания 2 стр. 22 (урок 2).


  1. Wrought iron is the most common type of ferrous alloys used nowadays.

  2. Now in the Ironbridge Gorge there are a lot of wrought iron works where modern innovations are used.

  3. The Industrial Revolution led to the establishment of capitalism.

  4. The cast-iron bridge made the town in which it had been built famous and gave the name to that town.


Урок 6


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