Review of Research Literature




НазваниеReview of Research Literature
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. Factor analysis is used in some of the social sciences, marketing and consumer behaviour research literature, and other applied disciplines, especially in those contexts where researchers seek to measure fundamentally unobservable variables such as intelligence and personality.

39 In a long career arguing for quality Australian programming, Patricia Edgar has made similar points about the poor standard of imported US programming for children. See, for example, her recent personal and industry memoir (Edgar, P. 2006).

40 See chapters 4, 5, 6 and 8.

41 Where authors have specified the type of television viewing studied, i.e. free-to-air television, all television viewing (including subscription television), DVD/video viewing, this will be reported.

42 In the medical literature, this type of study design is rated as providing ‘Category C’ level of evidence (within a framework in which Level A provides the strongest level of evidence and Level D the weakest).

43 However, following Robinson, Stephen Kline (Kline, S. 2005) conducted a similar intervention experiment for educational purposes, as reported in Chapter 2. It reported significant increases in physical activity during the monitoring period when children followed a reduced screen time budget.

44 The Generation M study, by the Kaiser Family Foundation, conducted a survey of media use using a US nationally representative sample of more than 2,000 young people aged 8–18 years of age (Roberts, D., Foehr, U. & Rideout, V. 2005). Television was defined as ‘television, videos/DVDs (both self-recorded and commercially produced) and movies—that is, all audio-visual systems that deliver content that does not depend on directive responses from the viewer’. Computer use included six recreational activities: games, web sites, chat rooms, emails, instant messaging, and graphics (i.e. PowerPoint). The average daily time spent watching television was 4.15 hrs (8–18 year-olds), while the average daily time on the computer was 1.02 hrs (8–18 year-olds).

45 A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study used in medical and social science research. In the former, it is typically used to gather evidence to refute the existence of a suspected association between a suspected cause (e.g. TV viewing) and disease (e.g. eating disorders). The cohort is identified before the appearance of the disease under investigation, and the study group(s) members are observed over a period of time to determine the frequency of new incidence of the disorders among them. A prospective cohort study defines the groups before the data is collected, while a retrospective cohort does so after the data collection. Prospective studies usually have fewer potential sources of bias and confounding than retrospective studies.

46 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

47 Generation Rx.com is a US nationally representative, random sample telephone survey of 1,209 young people aged 15–24, with an over-sample of 200 non-white respondents. The data were weighed by gender, age, race, and region, to ensure results are representative of youth aged 15–24. 1072 respondents were identified as ‘online youth’ (those who have ever gone online) and 820 identified as ‘online health seekers’ (those who have looked up health information on the internet). The margin of error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points for the total sample, plus or minus three percentage points among the online youth, and plus or minus 3.5 percentage points among the online seekers.

48 See Chapters 4 and 8 for further discussion of factors that mediate access to sexual content.

49 See also the section on the ‘social net’ in Chapter 8.

50 See also the discussion of children’s fright responses to television in Chapter 4. Cantor and colleagues also mention sleep disturbances in the research reviewed in that context (Cantor, J. 2001, 2002; Cantor, J., Wilson, B. & Hoffner, C. 1986; Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. 1999; Valkenburg, P., Cantor, J. & Peeters, A. 2000).

Australian Communications and Media Authority
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