To The History of Science (2)




НазваниеTo The History of Science (2)
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An Introduction

To

The History of Science (2)

(From Renaissance to Early 21st Century)




From Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia

Edited in

The Department of Philosophy of Science

Faculty of Theology and Philosophy

Islamic Azad University (Science and Research Branch)

_________

1390-1391/ 2011


Table of Contents



Renaissance

  • 1 Overview

  • 2 Origins

    • 2.1 Latin and Greek Phases of Renaissance humanism

    • 2.2 Social and political structures in Italy

    • 2.3 Black Death/Plague

    • 2.4 Cultural conditions in Florence

  • 3 Characteristics

    • 3.1 Humanism

    • 3.2 Art

    • 3.3 Science

    • 3.4 Religion

    • 3.5 Self-awareness

  • 4 Spread

    • 4.1 Northern Europe

    • 4.2 Portugal

    • 4.3 Croatia

    • 4.4 Spain

    • 4.5 England

    • 4.6 France

    • 4.7 Germany

    • 4.8 Hungary

    • 4.9 Netherlands

    • 4.10 Poland

    • 4.11 Russia

  • 5 Historiography

    • 5.1 Conception

    • 5.2 Debates about progress

6 Other Renaissances

Scientific revolution

  • 1 Significance of the revolution

  • 2 New ideas

  • 3 Ancient and medieval background

  • 4 New approaches to nature

    • 4.1 The mechanical philosophy

    • 4.2 The Chemical Philosophy

    • 4.3 Empiricism

    • 4.4 Mathematization

  • 5 Scientific developments

  • 6 Theoretical developments

7 Contrary views

History of Mathematics

  • 9 Renaissance mathematics

  • 10 Mathematics during the Scientific Revolution

    • 10.1 17th century

    • 10.2 18th century

  • 11 Modern mathematics

    • 11.1 19th century

    • 11.2 20th century

    • 11.3 21st century

  • 12 Future of mathematics

History of Astronomy

  • Modern astronomy

  • Cosmology and the expansion of the universe

  • New windows into the Cosmos open

History of Physics

  • 2 Galileo Galilei and the rise of physico-mathematics

  • 3 The Cartesian philosophy of motion

  • 4 Newtonian motion versus Cartesian motion

  • 5 Rational mechanics in the 18th century

  • 6 Physical experimentation in the 18th and early 19th centuries

  • 7 Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and electromagnetic theory

  • 8 The emergence of a new physics circa 1900

History of thermodynamics

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Contributions from ancient and medieval times

    • 1.2 Transition from chemistry to thermochemistry

    • 1.3 Phenomenological thermodynamics

    • 1.4 Birth of thermodynamics as a modern science

    • 1.5 Kinetic theory

  • 2 Branches of

  • 3 Entropy and the second law

  • 4 Heat transfer

  • 5 Cryogenics

History of Special Relativity

  • 1 Introduction

  • 2 Aether and Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies

    • 2.1 Aether models and Maxwell's equations

    • 2.2 Search for the aether

    • 2.3 Lorentz's theory of electrons

    • 2.4 Electromagnetic mass

    • 2.5 Absolute space and time

    • 2.6 Light constancy and the Principle of relative motion

    • 2.7 Lorentz's 1904 model

    • 2.8 Poincaré's Dynamics of the electron

  • 3 Special relativity

    • 3.1 Einstein 1905

      • 3.1.1 Electrodynamics of moving bodies

      • 3.1.2 Mass-energy equivalence

    • 3.2 Early reception

      • 3.2.1 First assessments

      • 3.2.2 Kaufmann-Bucherer experiments

      • 3.2.3 Relativistic momentum and mass

      • 3.2.4 Mass and energy

      • 3.2.5 Experiments by Fizeau and Sagnac

      • 3.2.6 Relativity of simultaneity

    • 3.3 Spacetime physics

      • 3.3.1 Minkowski's spacetime

      • 3.3.2 Vector notation and closed systems

      • 3.3.3 Lorentz transformation without second postulate

      • 3.3.4 Non-euclidean formulations without imaginary time coordinate

      • 3.3.5 Time dilation and twin paradox

      • 3.3.6 Acceleration

      • 3.3.7 Rigid bodies and Ehrenfest paradox

      • 3.3.8 Acceptance of special relativity

    • 3.4 Relativistic theories

      • 3.4.1 Gravitation

      • 3.4.2 Quantum field theory

    • 3.5 Priority

    • 3.6 Criticisms

History of general relativity

  • 1 Creation of general relativity

    • 1.1 Overview

    • 1.2 Early investigations

    • 1.3 Developing general relativity

    • 1.4 General covariance and the hole argument

    • 1.5 The development of the Einstein field equations

    • 1.6 Einstein and Hilbert

    • 1.7 Sir Arthur Eddington

  • 2 Solutions

    • 2.1 The Schwarzschild solution

    • 2.2 The expanding universe and the cosmological constant

    • 2.3 More exact solutions

  • 3 Testing the theory

  • 4 Alternative theories

  • 5 More about GR history

    • 5.1 Timeline

      • 5.1.1 1950s

      • 5.1.2 1960s

      • 5.1.3 1970s
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