Draft Environmental Impact Statement




НазваниеDraft Environmental Impact Statement
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Дата конвертации29.10.2012
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Draft Environmental Impact Statement

Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration Implementation


Purpose and Need: The Elwha River ecosystem and native anadromous fisheries are severely degraded as a result of two hydroelectric dams (projects) and their reservoirs built in the early 1900s. Congress has mandated the full restoration of this ecosystem and its native anadromous fisheries through the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act (Public Law 102-495). The Department of the Interior has found there is a need to return this river and the ecosystem to its natural, self-regulating state, and proposes to implement the Congressional mandate by removing both dams in a safe environmentally sound and cost effective manner and implementing fisheries and ecosystem restoration planning. No other alternative would fully restore the ecosystem or its native anadromous fisheries.


Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative: The U.S. Department of the Interior proposes to fully restore the Elwha River ecosystem and native anadromous fisheries through the removal of Elwha Dam and Glines Canyon Dam and implementing fish restoration and revegetation. Dam removal would occur over an 18-month to 2-year period. Elwha Dam would be removed by blasting, and Glines Canyon Dam by a combination of blasting and diamond-wire saw cutting. Lake Aldwell would be drained by a diversion channel, and Lake Mills by notching down Glines Canyon Dam. Stored sediment would be eroded naturally by the Elwha River. The project area is located in Clallam County, on the Olympic Peninsula, in Washington State.


Lead agency: National Park Service


Cooperating agencies: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe


Type of statement: This is a draft environmental impact statement which is procedurally connected (tiered) to the Department of the Interior Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration Final Environmental Impact Statement (June 1995). This statement examines alternatives for implementing the policy choice to remove both Elwha and Glines Canyon Dam based on Interior’s Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration statement.


Abstract: In addition to the proposed action, two other alternatives are examined. They are: the Dredge and Slurry alternative (removing fine-grained sediment prior to dam removal by using suction dredges, and sending the slurry to the Strait of Juan de Fuca in a pipeline), and No Action (dams are retained as is, without fish passage measures). The proposed action is also the Department of the Interior’s preferred alternative. Short-term negative impacts from removing both dams could result from the release of sediment now trapped in the reservoirs. The finer grained particles could temporarily but significantly impact fish or other aquatic organisms. Impacts on water quality, river morphology, flooding, native anadromous and resident (e.g. trout and char) fisheries, living marine resources, wildlife, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, cultural resources, land use, recreation, aesthetics, and socioeconomics are examined in this environment impact statement. Both of the other alternatives would also have significant impacts on resources examined in this document.


Public Comment Period: Written comments will be taken for a period of 60 days on the draft environmental impact statement. They should be sent to Sarah Bransom, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Resource Planning, DSC-RP, 12795 West Alameda Parkway, P.O. Box 25287, Denver Colorado 80225-0287, phone (303) 969-2210. Public meetings to take oral and/or written comments will be scheduled during this time. Questions on the project should be addressed to Dr. Brian Winter, Elwha Project Leader, at Olympic National Park in Port Angeles, (360) 452-0302.


Contents

Summary

Introduction 1

Purpose and Need 1

Alternatives 4

Summary of Impacts 8

Fluvial Processes and Sediment Transport 8

Flooding 9

Surface Water 10

Groundwater 11

Native Anadromous Fisheries 12

Vegetation 14

Wildlife 14

Species of Special Concern 15

Living Marine Resources 15

Air Quality and Noise 16

Cultural Resources 17

Socioeconomics 18

Public Health and Safety 18

Traffic 19

Indian Trust Resources 20

Recreation 20

Land Use 21

Aesthetics 21

Purpose and Need

Introduction 23

Purpose and Need for Action 26

Regional Context 26

Elwha River 28

Need for Federal Action 30

Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 30

Relationship to Other Planning Documents 30

Issues and Concerns 31

Issues Dismissed From Further Analysis 38

Sediment Management 38

Water Quantity and Quality 38

Native Anadromous and Resident Fisheries 38

Living Marine Resources 38

Air Quality and Climate 39

Socioeconomics 39

Power Generation 39

Land Use 40

Planning Goals and Objectives 40

Major Goals in Taking Action 40

Alternatives

Range of Alternatives 41

Existing Project Features 41

No Action Alternative 41

Dam Operations 41

Sediment Management 43

Flood Control 43

Fisheries Recovery 43

Revegetation 43

Water Quality 43

Disposition of Lands 48

Interpretation 48

Cultural Resources 48

Costs 48

Permitting 48

Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 49

Summary of Actions 49

Dam Removal 54

Sediment Monitoring and Management 58

Flood Control 59

Fisheries Recovery 59

Revegetation 62

Water Quality Protection 63

Disposition of Lands 63

Interpretation 65

Cultural Resources 66

Costs 66

Permitting 66

Dredge and Slurry Alternative 67

Summary of Actions 67

Dam Removal 69

Sediment Management 69

Pipeline 70

Flood Control 71

Fisheries Recovery 71

Water Quality Protection 71

Disposition of Lands 71

Interpretation 71

Cultural Resources 73

Costs 73

Permitting 75

Alternatives Considered but Rejected 75

Dam Removal 78

Stream Diversion 81

Sediment Management 82

Affected Environment

Fluvial Processes and Sediment Transport 101

River morphology 104

Flooding 107

Flooding Frequency 109

Surface Water 109

Discharge 109

Use 110

Water Quality 113

Groundwater 114

Regional Hydrological Setting 114

Alluvial Aquifer Characteristics (lower Elwha River) 116

Groundwater Quantity and Use 117

Groundwater Quality 118

Native Anadromous and Resident Fisheries 119

Chinook Salmon 122

Coho Salmon 123

Pink Salmon 123

Chum Salmon 124

Sockeye salmon125

Steelhead 125

Searun and Resident Cutthroat Trout 126

Native Char 126

Resident Rainbow Trout and Other Species 127

Vegetation 128

Riparian Communities 129

Upland Communities 130

Wetland Communities 130

Nonvegetated Area 131

Wildlife 131

Mammals 131

Birds 133

Reptiles and Amphibians 134

Species of Special Concern 134

Federally Listed Species 134

Federal Candidate Species 137

Wildlife Species with State Status 139

State Sensitive Plant Species 140

Other Rare Species 140

Living Marine Resources 140

Air Quality 143

Noise 144

Cultural Resources 145

Elwha Klallam People 145

Euro-American People 147

Affected Resources 148

Socioeconomics 150

County Economic Base 151

Income, Employment, and Poverty 152

Public Infrastructure, Services, and Utilities 152

Electric Power Production 154

Fisheries and Fish Processing 155

Recreation/Tourism 156

Social Values 156

Nonmarket Values 158

Public Health and Safety 158

Earthquakes 158

Deep Earthquakes 159

Shallow Crustal Earthquakes 159

Megathrust Earthquakes 159

Dam Safety 161

Hazardous Materials 162

Traffic 162

Existing Roadways 162

Waste Disposal Areas 163

Intersection Volumes 164

Indian Trust Resources 166

Recreation 167

Regional Recreational Resources 167

Recreation in the Elwha River Valley 167

Recreational Facilities 169

Recreational Fishing 170

Other Recreational Activities 172

Land Use 173

Regional Landscape Setting 173

Land Ownership 174

Existing Land Use 176

Land-Use Plans 178

Aesthetic Resources 183

Regional Landscape 184

Project Area Landscape 184

Aesthetic Resource Management 189

Impacts

Fluvial Processes and Sediment Transport 191

Summary of Regulations and Policies 191

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 191

Impacts of No Action 192

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 194

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 204

Flooding 206

Summary of Regulations 206

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 206

Impacts of No Action 207

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 208

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 216

Surface Water 217

Summary of Regulations and Policies 217

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 217

Impacts of No Action 218

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 221

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 227

Groundwater 230

Summary of Regulations and Policies 230

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 230

Impacts of No Action 231

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 232

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 238

Native Anadromous and Resident Fisheries 239

Summary of Regulations and Policies 239

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 240

Impacts of No Action 241

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 248

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 262

Vegetation 265

Summary of Regulations and Policies 265

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 266

Impacts of No Action 266

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 267

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 270

Wildlife 271

Summary of Regulations and Policies 271

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 271

Impacts of No Action 272

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 272

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 274

Species of Special Concern 275

Summary of Regulations and Policies 275

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 275

Impacts of No Action 276

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 277

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 284

Living Marine Resources 285

Summary of Regulations and Policies 285

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 285

Impacts of No Action 286

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 288

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 290

Air Quality 291

Summary of Regulations and Policies 291

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 291

Impacts of No Action 292

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 293

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 295

Noise 295

Summary of Regulations and Policies 295

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 296

Impacts of No Action 297

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 298

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 302

Cultural Resources 303

Summary of Laws, Regulations, Policies 303

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 304

Impacts of No Action 304

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 306

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 310

Socioeconomics 311

Summary of Regulations and Policies 311

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 311

Impacts of No Action 312

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 314

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 319

Public Health and Safety 320

Earthquakes 320

Summary of Regulations and Policies 320

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 320

Impacts of No Action 320

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 321

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 322

Dam Safety 322

Summary of Regulations and Policies 322

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 323

Impacts of No Action 323

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 324

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 325

Hazardous Materials 325

Summary of Regulations and Policies 325

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 326

Impacts of No Action 326

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 327

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 328

Traffic 328

Summary of Regulations and Policies 328

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 329

Impacts of No Action 332

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 334

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 338

Indian Trust Resources 339

Summary of Regulations and Policies 339

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 340

Impacts of No Action 340

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 341

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 342

Recreation 343

Summary of Regulations and Policies 343

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 343

Impacts of No Action 344

Impacts of the Proposed Action – River Erosion Alternative 345

Impacts of the Dredge and Slurry Alternative 347

Land Use 349

Summary of Regulations and Policies 349

Methodologies for Analyzing Impacts 349

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