Power Monitor System Jean-Wesly Albert, Wayne Malcolm, Pascal Anglade, Marcellus J. Augustin School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816-2450




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НазваниеPower Monitor System Jean-Wesly Albert, Wayne Malcolm, Pascal Anglade, Marcellus J. Augustin School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816-2450
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Power Monitor System



Jean-Wesly Albert, Wayne Malcolm, Pascal Anglade, Marcellus J. Augustin

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816-2450

Abstract — The objective of this project is to build a device that allows us to calculate the energy an appliance is consuming. The Power Monitor System will be a small, inexpensive device that will display in real time the amount of energy that is being consumed in kilowatt/Hours and dollars amount. Since we want this device to be very flexible, it will be build in two components: One that will be plugged in the wall with the appliance and the other component will be an LCD screen that will display the data wirelessly.

Index Terms — Current transformers, driver circuits, microcontrollers, relays, voltage dividers.

I. Introduction


With the world changing at a very fast pace, the way of living is changing at that same pace. With the emergence of new developed countries, the birth of technology in several third world countries, energy has become more and more indispensable to a larger part of the world. Hence we have witnessed lately the sudden increase in the price of oil due to more significant demands in the world. In this same state mind, we have seen a movement lately in research trying to find alternative measure to create energy. Also due to the fact of global warming we feel that as humans we need to reduce significantly our energy consummation. This is therefore the reason why we building the power monitor system.

Our goal is to design and construct an inexpensive Power Monitor system that would provide the functionality of screening the power consumed by 120 Volt, 60 Hz household loads. It will also provide additional information including RMS values of current and voltage and the active power consumed by the appliances. Applications for this device can be easily extended to household and commercial use. The device will employ Current and Voltage transformers to obtain RMS current and voltage values. The data obtained from these sensors will be processed to find the required parameters. In order to make this a marketable product that could aid in professional use, we will provide the following features:

  • LCD to display critical information at the load.

  • Wireless communication with a central terminal to log data collected.

Utilization of the data collected to provide power consumption graphs and interpretation of this data to suggest schemes to conserve power. We believe this project will serve various benefits including: Our final implementation would aid one to interpret power consumption from various sections of building different appliances in a room and take appropriate steps to conserve power and use it more efficiently. The cost of existing power monitors runs into several hundreds of dollars. While many consumers are interested in protecting the environment, most lack the tools necessary to take effective measure to save energy. That's where home power monitor unit comes in, because it continuously measures the electricity consumption of your appliances, it can help you conserve energy and help with the environment. With the installation of home power monitor unit you can immediately begin monitoring and controlling your energy consumption which will also save you lots of money! You can see what you are spending on electricity each second, as well as what you've spent so far today or so far this month. A brief overview of the system is seen below in figure 3.1.The figure shows all the different main component of the system without many details.

II. System Components

  1. Current Sensor

A typical load that is connected to a 120 Vac power supply can draw a very high amount of current. However, different appliances draw different amount of currents when plug in an outlet. A small device like the power monitoring system that we are designing cannot measure high currents, so in order for us to measure the current using by the appliance and not damage the device we have to use a current sensor. For this project, we use a shunt resistor as our current sensor. The shunt resistor is a very small resistor that uses ohm’s law to calculate the current flowing trough the resistor from the voltage drop though the resistor.


  1. Voltage Divider

Our power monitor will be designed to be used by a 120 volts load. To measure the power, we must take a sample of both the voltage and the current drawn by that load. Since the device will be relatively small, the chip we will be using will not be able to measure 120 volts; therefore we have to use some kind of voltage transformer to proportionally cut the voltage down to a desirable voltage for the chip. Since our device will be very small, we decide to use resistors and step down the voltage instead. We design a circuit as seen in figure 4.1. In this circuit, we use the principle of voltage divider where the voltage input is 120 Vac and the voltage output is calculated by multiplying the voltage input by the resistor and divide the total by the sum of the resistors. We calculate the output if we use R7+R6= 1MΩ and R8 = 1k, the voltage out is about 117mv which is acceptable for our chip.



  1. Opto-Isolators

Once we stepped down the voltage and the current properly, the idea is to send to the microcontroller to calculate the power. For safety reason and to ensure that the microcontroller does not burn out due to a grounding problem, we decided to use opto-isolators to input both the current and the voltage before they are sent to the microcontroller. The advantage of this chip is that it simplifies the system design and improves the system performance and the data integrity. It also provides a more accurate and timely current information. Since it takes an input voltage from one side and output a proportional isolated voltage from the other side, we decided to use this chip for sensing both the voltage and the current before they go to the microcontroller.


D- Relay

As we have described earlier in our definition, we want the user to be able to control a circuit automatically from the LCD display. We know in a normal house if we want to shut the power off a certain area or a unit, we can do it manually from the breaker box. Since our project is not designed to be used in the whole house together, we figure we would use automatic relay. We want to use a small automatic relay that can be integrated inside our box. The relay we will use in this project is purchased from RadioShack. This relay has a coil and three contacts. The coil has two pins and the other contacts are normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), and common(C). If a component has to be off but only should be on when the relay is switched, that component should be connected to normally open side of the relay. For our project, the device will always be on but has to turn off when the relay switched so it will be connected to the normally closed side. Because when we switched the relay on, the normally closed side will open, current will stop flowing and the device will turn off.


E. Microcontroller

The Microcontroller will be the most important component in the designing of our project. This is due to the fact that the microcontroller will interact with most of the modules that will have to do with control; as to say, the house simulator module, the main system, and the mobile device. In order to get data converted, wireless data transmission, and LED blinking microcontroller will have to be present for those functionality mentioned. With that in mind the different type of microcontrollers for use on this project are overwhelming. The categories go from the number of pin to the type of architecture for that typical microcontroller. For out project we will the PIC microcontroller.


  1. Wireless Communication

Wireless interaction between the modules defined will play a big role in this project. In the wireless realm there is an abundant amount of technology that is placed to our disposition. However we find zigbee to be a very attractive solution to interact our two modules. Zigbee is different from other wireless protocols and standards because it is design to serve a variety of market applications that require low cost, low power when compared to Wimax and wifi devices.


  1. LCD

The LCD is one of the most important parts of the project. This is the part that will interact with user. The LCD will display the kilowatt/Hour in one side of the screen and the dollar amount in the other side. We figure the dollar amount will be more relevant with the consumer, so it will be printed bigger. Also there will be two buttons, one that will allow you to shut the appliance off whenever you desire and another, the menu button. This button will allow the user to see the voltage, the frequency and the amount of current the appliance is drawing.


  1. Power Supply

Many of the components of our project have to be powered up to be able to work. For instance the microcontroller required 5V dc to operate, the HCPL-7520 opto-isolator needs 5V dc outside and 5Vdc form the microcontroller. Also the Xbee needs 3.3V dc. To obtain all these different voltages we decided to use a voltage transformer. The voltage transformer will step down the current, send it to a rectifier. The rectifier will convert the AC voltage to DC which in turn will be stepped down by a regulator before it goes to the component.

III. System Concept


A better way to understand this project is to show a flow chart diagram of the whole system as seen in Fig 3.1. As we may see below, the system in a whole has been simplified with the addition of the two opto-isolators. The voltage from the shunt resistor is sent to HCPL-7520 which in turn amplifies it and sends it to the microcontroller. On the other hand the voltage is stepped down using a 1 MΩ and 1 KΩ resistors. The voltage drop from the 1KΩ resistor is measured and sent to the other HCPL-7520 which amplifies and sends it to the microcontroller as the voltage sample. The 120 Vac is stepped down from another node by a voltage transformer which sends the secondary voltage to a rectifier. The rectifier converts the Ac voltage to DC and sends it to a regulator. Four different regulators will be used; three will step down the voltage from the rectifier to 5V DC to power the microcontroller and the two HCPL-7520s. The other regulator will step down the voltage to 12 V DC to power an operational amplifier that we use to step up a signal form the microcontroller that trips the relay.




Fig 3.1 Wall module concept


Once we get the current sample, the voltage sample to the microcontroller and power up all the components, the microcontroller will do the calculations using the data. After the data is calculated, it is sent to another microcontroller outside the wall module through a zigbee module. Once this data is sent, it will be received through another zigbee module shown in Fig 3.2. This zigbee will transfer this data to the microcontroller of the mobile module which has the instructions to print it to the screen. That second microcontroller will not perform many calculations since the calculated data will already come from the wall module. The screen will have a couple menu buttons. One of the buttons will be an option to shut down the appliance. Once that button is pressed, the mobile module will send a signal to wall module and one pin of that microcontroller will be hot, power the relay and turn the appliance off. The other button will be a menu that allows you to scroll down to see the voltage, the current and the frequency.




Fig 3.2 Mobile Module Concept

IV. Hardware Details


  1. Current Sensor

To calculate the current drawing by the appliance we use a very small resistor. This application can be explained by the ohm’s law which stated that if there is a voltage V across a resistor, the current flowing through it can be calculated by the formula I=V/R. The voltage that is measured across the resistor is sent to an opto-isolator. Which in turn amplify the voltage and sent it to the microcontroller. The resistor has to be very small, we use a .01Ω as seen in figure 3.3, and when we put a load that draws around 2.4A. We have a voltage drop across that resistor of about 25mV. The current is then calculated by dividing the voltage by the resistor, so 25mV/.01Ω = 2.5A which is about what the load is drawing. This calculation is used for calibration purpose. The 25 mV is sent to the opto-isolator which amplifies the signal to about 1.2V. That voltage is sent to a register in the microcontroller which multiplies it by the other voltage input obtain from the voltage divider.



Fig 3.3 Shunt Resistor

B. Voltage Divider

As we mentioned before we will use the principle of voltage divider to step down our voltage before sending it to the microcontroller .To obtain the proper voltage, we use a 1MΩ resistor and 1KΩ resistor in series, the design is shown in figure 4.1 below. The capacitor is used to filter the noise and send a clean signal to the opto-isolator. The two outputs are taken from the C8 node and ground. The wire from the C8 node goes to Vin+ of the opto-isolator and the wire from ground goes to Vin-. The voltage measured is the voltage across the R8 resistor which is about 120 mV. The voltage can be obtained by using the equation Vout = R8xVin/ (R7+R6). Assume that R8 equals to 1KΩ and R7+R6 = 1MΩ. The capacitor we used is about 33 nF. This capacitor helps filtering the signal before it goes to the opto-isolator. 




Fig 4.1 Voltage divider

  1. Opto-Isolator

The opto-isolators we are using are the HCL-7520 and are shown in figure 4.2. The chip has 8 pins; the first 4 are considered the input pins and are isolated from the next four which are the output pins. Pins 2 and 3 are where the voltage is entered from the voltage divider. The same thing is done for the current, the two wires from the resistor are connected to pin 2 and 3. Remember that we are using two of these chips, one for the current and the other for the voltage. The HCPL-7520 is powered by two +5V, one is from the power supply and the other which is on the output side is powered by the VDD of the microcontroller. The opto-isolator can take an input voltage range from -256 mV to 256 mV. The input voltage is differential and the output is scaled to Vref with a gain of Vref/.512. Vref is 5V taken from the microcontroller and connected to pin 6 of the opto-isolator. Pin 2 receives the positive voltage and pin 3 receives the ground from the resistor. Pin 4 is grounded from the source where the power supply comes from and pin 5 is grounded from the microcontroller. Since the input and output is isolated through the chip, it prevents the microcontroller from receiving a big voltage if a grounding problem would happen in the circuit. It also amplifies the signal to a range that is better interpreted by the A/D converter of the microcontroller.


Fig 4.2 Diagram of the Opto-Isolator


  1. Relay

Using an automatic relay to shut our appliance is one of the better alternatives to control our device. However knowing that the relay has to fit inside the box with all the other components makes it a little bit challenging. We had to find a small enough relay that can take little space and rated with a minimum of 120 Vac and at least 10 A. From our research we found the OUDH-SS-112D from RadioShack. The contacts of these relay are connected as shown in figure 4.3. The connections shown below are always connected when the appliance is running. If the consumer wants the appliance to be off, he or she would press a button in LCD screen, that button will send a command to the microcontroller which in turn will supply 5 V to an operational amplifier. The operational amplifier will step up the signal to about 8 V. The reason we use an operational amplifier is because that relay needs at least 7.8 V to trip. Once the relay receives the 8 V from the output of the op-amp trough the coil, the switch that is connected to the normally closed contact of the relay is switched to the normally open contact. Since the appliance is connected to the normally closed side, the voltage flow from 120 Vac to the appliance will be disrupted and therefore turn the appliance off.




Fig 4.3 Relay Connection


  1. Microcontroller

For our project we will use the PIC18F458. The microcontroller seen in figure 5.1 is the brain of the project. This model was chosen because of the number of pins available. Being afraid we could run out of pins for our application, we decided that we would use the ones with most pins available. The PIC18F458 has an operating voltage of 4.2 to 5.5 V; it has a flash memory of 32 Kbytes and a data EEPROM of 256 bytes. Since this microcontroller also has its own integrated A/D converter, it makes a little bit more attractive knowing we don’t have too much space inside our box to add too many components.



Fig 5.1 Microcontroller diagram


As we may see in the figure, when the voltage comes out the opto-isolator, it goes into pin 2 of the microcontroller. And when the voltage comes from the other opto-isolator, it goes to pin 3 of the microcontroller. They multiply together as the samples are taken 1000 times every second, the average is send to the screen trough the Xbee from pins 25 and 26. Pin 20 of the microcontroller is always low, when the button is pressed from the LCD, that pin comes hot and send approximately 5V to the op-amp which in turn trips the relay. Pin 33 to 40 as shown in the figure are the display pins and are connected to the LCD. Pin 13 is used for the oscillator which has a 4 MHz clock.


  1. Wireless Communication

1. Zigbee

Zigbee is a term used to define a standardized protocol for wireless personal area networking or WPAN. There are three types of Zigbee devices: the Zigbee network coordinator, which is a smart node that automatically initiates the formation of the network, the second one is the Zigbee router which is also a smart node that links groups together and provides multi-hoping for messages. The third type is the Zigbee end devices; they are the last device or the last node of a tree. The Zigbee device can be connected to each other by different techniques: The star, the Mesh, The cluster Tree as we can see in the figure 5.2 below. However for our project, we will use the Star technique since it is simpler and our project does not

request something more complicated. The only downside of the Zigbee is its transferring speed, which is up to 115.2 Kbps. It can be bad depending on the use intended. However, in our project the data rate that we need is not going to be problem at all since our transmission rate will not go over 100 Kbps. For our project we will be using the XBee 802.15.4 OEM RF module. Some characteristics of Xbee are shown below.

Performance

  • Transmit power output: 1mW (0 dBm)

  • Indoor or urban range: up to 100 ft (30 m)

  • Outdoor/RF line of sight range: up to 300 ft (100 m)

  • RF data rate: 250 kbps

  • Operating Frequency: 2.4 GHz

  • Interface data rate: up to 115.2 Kbps

  • Receiver sensitivity: -92 dBm

Power

  • Supply voltage: 2.8-3.4 V

  • Transmit current: 45 mA at 3.3V

  • Receive current: 50 mA at 3.3V

  • Power down sleep current < 10 µA

Physical Properties

  • Size: 0.960 in x 1.087 in

  • Weight: 0.10 oz

  • Antenna options: U.FL. RF connector, RPSMA, chip antenna, or whip antenna

  • Operating temperature: -40° C to 85° C




Fig 5.2 Zigbee Topology


  1. LCD

When using a LCD screen several precautions are to be remembered. The module is really fragile and cannot take more than it supposed to. The LCD works with 5 volts and 3.3 volts. The LCD can work in a maximum of 70 degree Celsius and -20 degree Celsius. We wanted to use 128 X 64 LCD display but due to some problems with the programming, we decided to use the HD44780U which is a 16X2, sixteen characters and two lines, black text on green background. The advantages of this LCD screen seen in Fig 6.1 includes: low power consumption, internal oscillator with external resistors and high speed MPU interface of to 2 MHz when Vcc = 5V.




Fig6.1 LCD screen

  1. Power Supply

In order to design and build our own power supply will need the following components:

  • Step-down Voltage Transformer

  • Fuse

  • Voltage rectifier

  • Capacitors

  • Voltage Regulators

As we have mentioned before, we use a voltage transformer to step down the voltage from the AC line. We found a transformer at Skycraft that takes 120 Vac in the primary side and step it down to 12.6 Vac in the secondary side with up to 300 mA seen in fig 6.2. Since this transformer is not too big, it works just fine for our project. The transformer has 4 pins; the first 2 pins are on the primary side where the hot and the neutral wire are connected. The other 2 pins are on the secondary side where one has the 12.6 Vac output and the other is ground. From the secondary, we connect the 12.6 V ac output to a bridge rectifier. This rectifier eliminates the negative wave sign of the AC voltage and converts it into straight DC voltage. Since we need different voltages to power the different components, we will use regulators. We use a 12V regulator that powers the operational amplifier which steps up the voltage that trips the relay. Also a 5V regulator is used to power the microcontroller and the two HCPL-7520 opto-isolators. We avoided using resistors to step down the voltage for the power supply because at times the voltage goes substantially high when it shouldn’t , so we use the voltage transformer which in the lab when we tested it is always giving the right amount of voltage.



Fig 6.2 Voltage Transformer

IV. Software Details


The software section of our project will consist of several subsections. Since on the wall socket we will have a microcontroller to calculate the power and the energy, some codes will be needed for that chip. It is possible to use assembly; however C will be used for all the microcontrollers. The microcontroller in the wall will do all calculations once it received the input current and voltage. Before any code is written in the microcontroller we need to initialize the ports. We use the following codes to do so.

//inialize all the ports

void ports_init()

{

TRISA = INPUT;//for the readings

//PORTA = LOW;//set PORTA = 0

ADCON1 = 0x80;//set A0 and A1 as analog Vdd = Vref+ Vss = Vref-

TRISB = OUTPUT;

//PORTB = LOW;//set PORTB = 0

TRISC = 0x90;//RX is I, TX is O

RCSTA.SPEN = 1;//enables RX/TX pins

//PORTC = LOW;//set PORTC = 0

TRISD.F2 = INPUT;

//PORTD = LOW;//set PORTD = 0

TRISE = OUTPUT;

//PORTE = LOW;//set PORTE = 0

}


//initialize all the variables

void var_init()

{

turnoff = 0;

i = 0;

count = 0;

}


//start LCD of the main system device

void screen_init()

{

TRISB = 0;

Delay_us(20);

Lcd_Init(&PORTB);

Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);

Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);

}


//start Xbee connection

void xbee_init()

{

Usart_Init(9600);//set the baud rate to 9600 bps

}


void SD_init()

{

Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV64, DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, CLK_IDLE_LOW, LOW_2_HIGH);


}


void init_portb_interrupts()

{

INTCON.RBIE = 1;

}


void init_usart_interrupts()

{

PIE1.RCIE = 1;

IPR1.RCIP = 1;

}


void init_all()

{

ports_init();

var_init();

screen_init();

//intro_screen();

xbee_init();

//SD_init();

init_usart_interrupts();

init_portb_interrupts();

}

To perform the calculations, we use the following codes.

//calculate voltage and current

void calc_data()

{

char Vresult[7];

char Iresult[7];

char Wresult[7];

char Ain0, Ain1;

long fVin0,fVin1,fVin,fIin,fAin0,fAin1;

float vAVG,iAVG;


Ain0 = Adc_Read(0);

Ain1 = Adc_Read(1);


fAin0 = (long)Ain0 << 12;

fAin1 = (long)Ain1 << 12;


fVin0 = multifix(fAin0, a2dSteps) - offset;

fVin1 = multifix(fAin1, a2dSteps) - offset;


Psum += multifix(fVin0,fVin1);

VsqrSum += multifix(fVin0,fVin0);

IsqrSUm += multifix(fVin1,fVin1);


sample++;


if(sample == SAMPLES){//when sample reaches 1000

vAVG = (float) sqrt(vScale * VsqrSum);

iAVG = (float) sqrt(iScale * IsqrSum);

rPower = (float) pScale * Psum;

aPower = vAVG * iAVG;

KWattHrs += rPower ;/// 3600.0;


xbee_send_data(KWattHrs);//send data over wifi

while(!Usart_Data_Ready());

//reset all variables for next sampling

VsqrSum = 0, IsqrSum = 0, Psum = 0,sample = 0;

}

}

This code would calculate the average power every second after taking 1000 samples from the inputs Ain0 and Ain1. The average power is calculated by multiplying the average voltage with the average current. The energy is then calculated by integrating the power over time. Once the power and the energy are calculated the data will be sent to the mobile module through the Xbee using the following command:


//send data wirelessly through xbee

void xbee_send_data(float data)

{//usart only takes 1 byte, float is 4 bytes

//blink_LED(3);//blink LED

Usart_Write(data);//1st byte

while(Usart_Data_Ready());

//blink_LED(3);//blink LED

//Usart_Write(data);//2nd byte

//while(Usart_Data_Ready());

//blink_LED(3);//blink LED

//Usart_Write(data);//3rd byte

//while (Usart_Data_Ready());

//blink_LED(3);//blink LED

//Usart_Write(data);//4th byte

//while(Usart_Data_Ready ());//data TX complete

}


//get commands from the mobile module

void xbee_get_cmd()

{

if(Usart_Data_Ready()){//make sure data is ready

Byte = Usart_Read();//put data in byte

}

if(Byte == 'R'){//if byte is equal to R

turn_r_off();//turn the relay off

}


Another interesting part of the project is the relay that will turn the appliance off automatically through the LCD menu. In order to perform this task, the microcontroller must receive the command wirelessly from the mobile module and turn high the pin associated with the relay.


Conclusion

All of the components mentioned above were tested and working as expected. As far as putting the whole system together, we are still in the construction level. We have decided to create our own PCB board because we feel that as future engineers it would be a good design experience. We have completed the boards and ready to start assemble and test the whole project together.


Acknowledgement

We wish to offer our thankful gratitude to the following professors for agreeing to review our project: Dr Thomas Wu Xinzhang, Michael G. Haralambous, Foroosh Hassan, and Moataz M Abdelwahab.


The engineers


Wayne Malcolm is an electrical engineering major at the University of Central Florida, graduating in August 08. He plans to work for United Space Alliance, after one year he plans to return to take some courses toward his master’s degree.


Marcellus Augustin is currently a senior at the University of Central Florida. He plans to graduate with his Bachelor’s of science degree in electrical engineering in December 2008. He plans to pursue his career in the energy industry.





Jean-Wesly Albert is an electrical engineering major at University of Central Florida graduating in December 2008.He is currently working as an intern for Florida Power & Light. He plans to pursue his Master’s degree soon after graduation. His primary interests are alternative energy systems including photovoltaic, and fuel cell systems.


Pascal Anglade is a computer engineering major at the University of Central Florida. Pascal plans to graduate in December 2008.


References

[1] J Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma, Thomas J. Overbye, Power system Analysis and Design 4th edition.

[2]Brown Marty, Practical switching power supply design. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990.

[3]Tom Denton, Automobile Electrical & Electronic Systems. Great Britain, 1995

[4]Microchip Technology Inc, Website: http://www.Microchip.com/

[5]Goodsky Inc, Website: http://www.oceancontrols.com.au

[6]Digikey Inc, Website: http://www.digikey.com

[7] Zigbee, Website: http://www.digi.com/products/wireless/

[8]Enerjar, Website: http://enerjar.net

[9]Analog Devices, Website: http://analog.com

[10] Donald A. Neamen, Microelectronics Circuit Analysis and Design 3rd Edition. Thompson 2001

[11]Wikipedia, Website: http://www.wikipedia.com

[12]Google, Website: http://www.google.com

[13]Avago technologies, Website: http://www.avagotech.com/products/optocouplers_-_plastic/plastic_miniature_isolation_amplifier/hcpl-7520/

[14] op-amp tutorial, Website: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/gadgets/741/741.html

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