Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering




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RFID SYSTEM REVIEW

Po-Hsian Huang

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering

Yuanpei University

No. 306, Yuanpei Street, Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Emailphhuang@mail.ypu.edu.tw

Tel+886-3--6102355

Fax+886-3-6102357

Abstract

RFID is an abbreviation of Radio Frequency Identification and it is one wireless radio frequency that it owns distinguish technology. It is easy to say that RFID books of library theft-proof magnetic stripe general to come briefly. It can help library to manage books. Unfortunately, theft-proof magnetic stripe just have magnetism and disappear magnetism two kinds of states only. It will cause the reaction system to emit the warning sound when this book has not been borrowed while taking. Because RFID chip can store more ' information ' (MBs) than magnetic stripe, it is general being used for logistics of the goods recently. For example, global leading Walmart of retail business has been announced since 2005, all goods must stick RFID chip within 100 big suppliers before companies exchange their products. The phenomenon impels RFID to discuss warmer than before.

RFID system is similar to library magnetic stripe burglary-resisting system. It is made up by three parts, such as chip (magnetic stripe), the reading machine (inductor), and management software (entrance guard's software),etc.. When readers hold a lot of books through the reading machine, they do not via the traditional scanning one by one of bar code reader. It can manage borrowing writing down yet and relevant information of this reader through the administrative system at the same time, can save a lot of manpower and circulation cost. Come briefly to say, RFID have high capacity, upgrades the materials, distinguish in a large amount, the security is covered and used repeat again and again. It also can help the library to save activity duration of basic administration. For example: Save the time of circulating , make an inventory , look for and lose the book , offer readers to often take advantage of the theme books service , remind and return the book automatically voluntarily automatically ¡­,etc. The manpower that the library saves because of this can be used as on is it serve to consult, popularizing serving, on sale throughout public relations ,etc. Thus, RFID can improve the quality of serving in the library.

Key words: RFID, magnetic stripe burglary-resisting system

1. Introduction and background

The application of RFID[1] scientific and technological system, the management that can be used for strengthening the whole world to supply the chain, put into the construction in the American-European retailer and American Ministry of National Defence , can be expected a large number of supply chains that apply to the logistics , manufacturing industry, even predicted and replaced on the bar code market of a part at least, even IBM, HP, the male genital rises and Microsoft vie for entering actively. As to manufacturer, RFID[2] really contributes to the production line information of transparence, including master the quantity of stock, efficiency of improving out the goods and logistics accurately, and then reduce one. A lot of experts think, this technology will be the key to improving and supplying efficiency of the chain by a wide margin in the future.

The ones that channel into RFID and use mainly in masses' life have the masses transport and pay at present The attendance system of the entrance guard of visit the card , bus leisurely and pay etc.ing , company, discrepancy of the community or the parking area are controlled, pet's chip , automobile guard against theft,etc. application, everybody uses, should be able to experience benefit and pluses and minuses channelled the application into , I do not prove more .

As for mostly doing in the industries ' the guide is being tested ', I such as Yongfeng (The logistics draws up plans , original a management of paper paper), freight transportation of Hsinchu (vehicle dispatcher), abundant grand automobile (after-sale service), precise skill computer (logistics storage), the male genital will transport by sea tomorrow (container is safe), study the society in work (the musical instrument is leased), south harbour tire (tire pressure is detected and examined), some dress industry (is it make an inventory to retail), , some logistics centre (for example 7-11 logistics centre ) , sprain getting accurate , the south luxuriant science and technology (brilliant to test the instant information system while being round RFID ) ...Wait a moment.

The ones that have already channelled into and used have had Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. to use Cheng brilliant and round to make to manage, it as far as I know channel into after the RFID can is it make information Cheng and transparency to improve even moring, is it make what mistake Cheng produce brilliant to loss while being round to reduce, can save up to ten million Taiwan dollars more than cost every year. The municipal library of Taibei has also already channelled into RFID library's system, can is it is it return book , make an inventory fast to take advantage of fast to go on, books especially is it save 80% more than time than traditional bar code type to make an inventory. The hospital spread except being beautiful, north medicine , and letter carried on SARS demonstrative department specially in 1992, later there were three always , ten thousand sweet-smelling , long age of Keelung , the peaceful hospital of health , kindness Your Majesty's hospital ...,etc. channel into too successively RFID for raising not to be the distinguishing rate more in patient.

(1)The domain category of small and medium-sized enterprises is extremely extensive, advise you should to is it obtain employment kind and field is it probe into RFID it uses to be and not only small enterprise to come to want, RFID can be applied to various kinds of scale customer: Transport and visit the card leisurely etc. in the electronic passport (e-passport ) for example in various countries channel into of government department , 900 million two generations of ID cards , Taibei victories of China's Mainland; For example world buy to sell system Vollma in a large most amount in large-scale enterprises (wal-mart), , American Ministry of National Defence (DOD ) , 3M system , VISA Visawave , Master Paypass , etc. ,RFID of library , ; For example Taibei 101 RFID chip had a match to ascend a height time the system this year, intelligence carton (smart case ) of our group of Yongfeng, large hospitals channel into RFID and guard against theft to lock etc. for RFID chip of distinguishing , all cart factory of the patient; Small-scale such as every entrance guard attendance system combination manufacturer , small electronic wallet ,etc..

(2)RFID will be up to the reducing of the price and skillful bar code application occasion that replace " majority " gradually of technology, but will not all replace, will match and combine using.

For example will still use the bar code to discern that check out on the beverage aluminium pot (whether RFID will interfere metal and water), , again for example one paper shortly unable to bear the weight of price higher than paper RFID label , n of time A4, but the bar code can be printed directly with the cost which approach 0.

RIFD and Barcode all belong to and discern (Auto-ID ) technology automatically , just operate the principle different from characteristic, the person of experienced and technology, can combine out the best automatic discernment environment and system.

2. Question analysis

Certainly RFID is not omnipotent either, faced problem have personal outside of right of privacy let out at present, chip cost still high, reading rate do the perfection , metal to interfere , personnel's work is changed[3]。

The biggest problem is still the interference to RFID in water and metal at present, this is that a technological characteristic of RFID covers the door, and that RFID should apply to and retail the greatest restriction and technology that can't be broken through at present while using in a large amount too[4]. Other questions that for example lower costs and seek unity of standard all have sizable improvement. RFID will not totally replace the bar code, it is better to cooperate with and use the result of complementing each other.

1. The environment or things with metal and moisture content, will be produced and interfere RFID.

2. Although does not need front to read at short range as the bar code, RFID stills have directionality.

3. At the same time the cloth builds the environments of a lot of Reader and Antenna, or read the occasion of a lot of tag at the same time, will produce and interfere probably, will need to overcome through transfering the school, the special project guest makes and melts the rate.

4. It is with high costs that the cloth is built, Tag and Reader of RFID are not cheap at the present stage.

5. Will cause the serious problem of unemployment.

6. UHF open frequency bands of various countries differ, there is question exactly closed.

7. Some LF low frequency chip analyse and explain already, there is a question duplicated.


3.Solution

Government regulation- the government all around the world controls spectral use.[5] Each country has already appointed some frequency spectrum for other uses. So, in fact has had no frequency spectrum of making RFID use worldwide yet. This means, a RFID label can not be in common use in all countries.

  • For example use RFID treatment way in the library to analyse:

  • 1. Borrow the book, return the book to deal with and all utilize RFID.

  • 2. RFID automatic note in the books remembers to be already borrowed while borrowing the book, RFID automatic note remembers to be already returned while returning the book.

  • 3. Can use and take advantage of the book returning machine by oneself, readers operate and borrow the book and return the book homework, can not do wrong.

  • 4. Use BOOKDROP directly at returning booking (return bookcase automatically), is it is it return book bookcase is it return book homework to finish promptly to put into to need only, can borrow the book again at once.

  • 5. The counter work station can be dealt with at the same time and take advantage of returning the book homework, and can deal with other more complicated work, for example: Renew, fine ...Wait for the homework.

  • 6. The magnetic media (tape, video-tape of film of recording, etc.) can all be used and taken advantage of the book returning machine or the hall staff and done the stat ion by oneself. Do not need to deal with in addition.

  • 7. RF detects and examines the door system definitely and is free of environment

  • 8. When the hall hides and makes an inventory, only need and can be read to move sideways on the bookshelf, the time of making an inventory is very short. Probably need on holidays or can finish making an inventory in the evening.

  • 9. Each book needs RFID, the market conditions do not exceed 25 yuan .

  • 10. Take advantage of the book returning machine by oneself, return bookcase, the open air and return the bookcase, check the equipment automatically automatically.

  • 11. Use RFID manages library hall it hides to be at present and in the future trend.

12. RFID that the library circle uses should accord with the following specification: 13. 56MHZ, ISO15693 international standard, EAS (the theft-proof function of electron) and storing device space above 64Bytes (do not preserve the log-in number, hall, ask for the book number ......,etc) .

4. Systematic structure of RFID

The systematic structure of RFID can be divided into a label, read the card machine with three applied major parts of the system, divide and state it as follows:

1. Electronic label (Tag): Divided into passive form and active two kinds. Passive form Tag receives the energy conveyed of the reading device , the circuit operates the electric energy, does not need external battery while changing into an electronic label; Can reach small , price cheap longe-lived and several materials can take advantage.

2. Card reading machine (Reader): Utilizing the high-frequency electromagnetic wave to transmit energy and signal, the speed of distinguishing of the electronic label can be up to more than 50 per second. Can utilize the wired or wireless communication way, with use and combine and use systematically.

3. The system is used: RFID system combines the technology, such as administrative system of the database, computer network and fire wall,etc., offer the full-automatic and safe and convenient instant monitoring system function. Including aviation luggage control, production automation is it accuse of to in charge of, storage manage, is it control, save from damage controlling to transport and medical treatment is managed etc..



RFID had a lot of different types, they produced different radio frequency. The choice of frequency depends on the use.

RFID uses five pieces of frequency mainly:

A. Low frequency (125/134KHz)- usually use for depositing and withdraw and controlling following with the assets.

B. When it has requests the intermediate frequency (13.56 MHz)- used for to the transmitting rate of media's materials and read the range.

C. The high frequency (433 MHz)- offers the moderate reading range and reads the speed high.

D. The ultra-high frequency (850 MHz-950 MHz)- offers the longer reading range and reads the speed higher.

E. Microwave (2.4 GHz-2.5 GHz)- offer and read the speed at most.

5. Comparison of traditional bar code and RFID

The traditional bar code is to utilize the photoelectric effect, utilize the distinguishing device of bar code to change the mere signal into telecom, and then read the information stored of the bar code. The traditional bar code can be regarded as ' the myopia ', because only close to the distinguishing device of bar code, the signal can be understood. RFID labels are different, it can launch radio waves initiatively or passively constantly, so long as within the range of receiving of RFID reader, can be but also distinguished out correctly by reaction, and the distance between receiving and dispatching of RFID distinguishing device is long and very short, different from frequency of utilization according to its own output power, range from several centimeters to dozens of meters. Because the radio wave has strong piercing through ability, even separate a distance, or pack the containers through the case or other, can all sweep and take aim articles inside, do not need to open the packaging of the goods. In addition, the high speed of scanning of RFID can not be mentioned in the same breath as it by the traditional bar code too, can read the relevant data of the goods from the radio frequency label every 250 milliseconds of media reader of RFID. At the same time, RFID reader can even deal with more than 200 labels at the same time, but the bar code label needs to discern one by one. In dealing with the data, the advantage of RFID is very obvious.

6. The Applications of RFID

6.1 RFID promotes the efficiency of management of the logistics effectively

The application of RFID scientific and technological system, the management that can be used for strengthening the whole world to supply the chain, receive the retailers , such as Wal-Mart , Metro Group ,etc. and American Ministry of National Defense to put into the construction in America and Europe , can be expected a large number of supply chains that apply to the logistics , manufacturing industry, even predicted and replaced on the bar code market of a part at least, even IBM, HP, the male genital rises and Microsoft vie for entering actively. As to manufacturer, RFID really contributes to the production line information of transparence, including master the quantity of stock, efficiency of improving out the goods and logistics accurately, and then lower costs. A lot of experts think, this technology will be the key to improving and supplying efficiency of the chain by a wide margin in the future. RFID can not merely be replaced and used the extensive bar code equipment currently, use, able to bear the waiting the characteristic such as being strong untouchably and non-directionally and for ever even more, very suitable for using it in automation or the abominable environment, for example, respect of receiving and dispatching the warehouse , logistics management , automobile and guarding against theft and saving the system , animal's automatic management from damage , charging the system , qualitative control automatically etc.. RFID really contributes to the production line information of transparence, including master the quantity of stock, efficiency of improving out the goods and logistics accurately, and then lower costs. In addition RFID have longe-lived also, security high, can environment person who restrain from advantage. RFID label life-span can up to over 10 o'clock at most, have what bar code does not possess waterproof, antimagnetic, is able to bear the performance, such as high temperature,etc. also; Bar code it is traditional in running into snow, fog, ice ,,etc. under working environment not abominable, its optics recognition technology will lose efficiency, and RFID can still work normally .

Research and develop on technology, research institute and foreign RFID enterprise and standard of information engineering organize cooperation, research and develop the wireless radio frequency and discern the reading device (RFID Reader ) , RFID basic software structure component (Savant , ONS ), and help the manufacturer to develop the unique application situation system.

In hardware, the research institute of information engineering has already possessed guests and made and melted the wireless energy of distinguishing the reading device of radio frequency, and develop several kinds of RFID wireless radio frequency reading devices (hold , fix); But the speech in the software component and application software, the money worker has already developed RFID safe storage administrative system, patented , and help the manufacturer to channel into and carry on application systematically.

In the future, the research institute of information engineering will use the situation to ' the intelligence things ' , will develop relevant software and hardware technology, including: Possess the wireless radio frequency identification label and reading device of the inductor, ' RFID popularizes the operation system ' (RFID Pervasive computing system), ' agent's engine (RFID Intelligent Agent and engine ) with make mathematical calculations of intelligence '.

6.2 libraries of RFID labels

The library[6.7] can use RFID to do the management of the books, may use and include:

Borrow the book, return the book to deal with and all utilize RFID. RFID automatic note in the books remembers to be already borrowed while borrowing the book, RFID automatic note remembers to be already returned while returning the book. Can use and borrow the book machine by oneself, readers can operate and borrow the book homework by oneself, will not make mistakes. Use BOOKDROP directly at returning booking (return bookcase automatically), is it is it return book bookcase is it return book homework to finish promptly to put into to need only. The counter work station can be dealt with at the same time and take advantage of returning the book homework, and can deal with other more complicated work, for example: Renew, fine ...Wait for the homework. The magnetic media (tape, video-tape of film of recording, etc. ) can all be used and taken advantage of the book returning machine or the hall staff and done the stat ion by oneself, do not need to deal with in addition .

6.3 RFID applies to the supply chain[8]

The place where RFID label is more wining than the traditional bar code lies in it does not need to read the characteristic of the materials through exposed toing , the reaction range is farther to 16.67 meters, lower the time that the goods pass in and out the customs and port by a wide margin . And the durability of RFID label enables its especially suitable for the open air and unstable weather to using even more. In the operation of the warehouse, RFID label can convey the goods data conveniently and swiftly. Sweeping the function in step and taking aim and enabling the administrative staff in the warehouse to cross and read multiple goods materials once of RFID label, and know at any time that the goods in the storehouse are live , saving a large amount of time and manpower .

The international goods code association (EAN) and U.S.A. unified the code committee (UCC) and claimed to jointly make up EPCglobal last October, in order to lead electronic product code (EPC) in supply chain manage popularization take and long-term development on. The whole daily life that supplies with chain management style even us is facing the great change.

The influence that the electronic product code is retailing the aspect is most extensive [9]. A shop that totally supports the electronic product code, will no longer need it by making an inventory artificially , because can already sweep the taking aim device and do from RFID that is put in the shop . The director only needs to connect to the computer of the database of the goods, can be clear that know the live telecast of the goods in the shop. For reaching the customer supporting the shop of the electronic product code to do shopping, they do not need to kill time and wait for in turn paying the bill either, because no matter how much the kind of the goods bought is, can read the prices materials at one time while sweeping the taking aim device, finish adding always with the course of paying the bill at prices within several seconds. The manufacturers of some products can come to improve the after-sale service of maintaining and changing etc. through RFID label.

American large-scale retailer Wal-Mart has already taken the lead in requiring that its 100 biggest suppliers are from January of 2005, must enclose RFID label on all goods which are transported to Wal-Mart. And other suppliers have also needed to accord with this request to the end of 2006 ago. Method of Wal-Mart is it adopt attitude, RFID of label to decide clearly for supplier already. And relevant hardware and software supplier also cherish the equally positive attitude to the systematic solution of offering RFID. IBM among them mobilize many group advisor is it design industry, retail, logistics and house necessary system to set about already, and RFID combines the scheme.

6.4 Iraqi war American armies use RFID technology

During Iraqi war, American militaries use RFID technology in a large amount too, to follow the trail of the identity, state and position of injured soldier or general people. Sewing RFID chip on the cuff, its materials can be read with handheld devices, discern patients, allow doctor to increase, fix or make the new treatment record at the chip.

ScenPro Company of Dezhou of U.S.A. has developed a set of TacMedCS systems used in the hospital of the third fleet of navy of Iraq, the instrument of Dezhou has offered RFID chip. The marketing of Dezhou instrument company RFID department and communication manager Bill Allen reveal, Tag-it chip of the instrument of Dezhou accords with ISO15693 standard, the operating frequency is 13.56MHz, the passive label without built-in battery can be read the equipment by RFID to obtain power to spread out of the materials. RFID is read reading between the equipment and cuff and write into the distance and can be up to 6 inches. The chip can store the information of 2KB, can be used for store the ID card number, injured the record and treating the materialsing.

In addition, multiple wireless technologies get application during the Iraqi war. Global positioning system is it track military position to use for, WLAN collect patient message RFID label, transmit to the electronic patient's administrative system, does not need to input the materials again in the central computer so once coming.

USN is still exploring that uses TacMedCS system for the battle field, discerns the wounded fast, write down the therapeutical situation that they receive , and pass information back on the base with GPS, treat and improve resources and allocate various kinds of possible application , such as ability ,etc. with higher speed.

RFID industry chain can be from the design and manufacture of RFID chip, until the development of the software and hardware, must see manufacturer which localization does it orientate of RFID industry chain, can just classify to IC designing , wireless communication , aerial design , software whiff or other classifications .

Domestic RFID industry supplies the chain except that UHF RFID chip has not been turned on out yet at present, take the place of workers / make other including brilliant round, the chip is tested, chip encapsulation , the aerial is designed, the aerial is made, Tag (electronic label) design, Tag encapsulation , Tag takes the place of workers / makes, read the writing device to design, the writing device takes the place of workers / makes , Middleware ( intermediary's software ) , application program , system combine (SI ) , a advisor has input of a lot of manufacturers to divide the work in the field to serve etc. to read.

There is no orthodox RFID concept burst yet at present in share of Taiwan, and then you can is it invest listing cupboard Company , RFID of development have Yongfeng I , grand , great chess , Feng Wu , precise skill , happy skill , platform raise , bright chess , hold group already to notice, Yongfeng I is it develop RFID at most , over one year , it has to be quite high popularity on international RFID stage already to put into among them. Outside me except Yongfeng, his relevant subsidiary (great put through number, silk way yard, large network science and technology of Taiwan) all lead in the field of domestic RFID specifically.

7. Conclusions

RFID (wireless radio frequency was discerned) comes to break Shen Ji systematically recentlied, activate immediately, the situation that the commerce talked about, academic discuss, media's report and case were consulted has increased much more suddenly and violently quickly. This is a gratifying good phenomenon, there is not foot that mention. But a whiff of sufferings consciousness that some bar code industry persons of our country take advantage of a situation and rise , think that RFID will replace the bar code in an all-round way , it is a very terrible " bar code terminator ", this's a topic in the topic. Is RFID really a terminator of the bar code on earth? This kind of doubt is not a groundless rumour, may not be neurotic either. The media has really reported the news of the following: (1)The instrument company of Dezhou had released the news release to declare during October last year (2003 ): " TI RFID TM Transponder " sales volume of this company has already been up to 300 million , has set up new milestone ; (2)It is revealed again , Wal-Mart declares that the supplier's goods supplied of goods under one's command must be planted into RFID, otherwise can't become a supplier ; (3)RFID label that the retail market needs drops to U.S. dollar of 5 fen by a wide margin ; (4)MIT American Massachusetts Institute of Technology is responsible for studying the professor who plans RFID and releasing news and claiming: Have perplexed RFID world wireless wave band a long time and controlled the bottleneck and has already been solved . Then seem to hold RFID into a new favourite of the rising star of the scientific and technological products for the moment, seem to dominate the situation which discerns the industry at one blow; This measure was as good as announcing that the bar code system will retire after winning merit soon, became historical music from then on. That is to say " RFID is the bar code terminator " if some personages are referred. The worker , trader , service trade of Taiwan are not new hand in using the experience of the bar code to set out on a journey, but the expert in a given field , it is seasoned that knowledge experience all reach and analogous to degree. Colony's everybody's diligent achievement that this is certainly. So send and hope that the backbone molecules of all trades and professions and centre halfback's system ascend a height and breathe out, unite the person of noble aspirations and make the norm of the code for one's own alliances of the same trade or business commonly that will make the bar code of Taiwan get the rich harvest. Especially circulate in the period that the undertaking begins to grow up, the bar code application with rational science stipulates, the so-called code principle that that is to say, the trouble that will make each member participating in copy sparingly, each individual that can make in the colony, adopt the unified form to carry on the exchange of information and circulation of articles.

8. References

[1] AN OVERVIEW OF RFID. Library Technology Reports, Nov/Dec2003, Vol. 39 Issue 6, p7, 11p

[2] Reading Level (Lexile): 1360; RFID demand generates worries/Taipei Times,2004/4/14

[3] Steven Shepard. RFID.McGraw-Hill, 2004

[4] Manish Bhuptani, Shahram Moradpour. RFID Field Guide : Deploying Radio Frequency Identification Systems. Prentice Hall PTR, 2005

[5] Patrick J. Sweeney. RFID For Dummies. For Dummies, 2005

[6] Should Libraries Play Tag with RFIDs? American Libraries, Dec2003, Vol. 34 Issue 11, p69, 3p

[7] RFID Making Headway in Libraries. By: Lichtenberg, James. Publishers Weekly, 7/26/2004, Vol. 251 Issue 30, p8, 2/3p

[8] Robert Kleist, et al. RFID Labeling: Smart Labeling Concepts & Applications for the Consumer Packaged Goods Supply Chain. Banta Book Group, 2004.

[9] Claus Heinrich. RFID and Beyond: Growing Your Business Through Real World Awareness. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

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