Методические разработки по развитию навыков устной речи




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МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА И ПРОДОВОЛЬСТВИЯ РФ


ТВЕРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ


Кафедра иностранных языков


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РАЗРАБОТКИ


ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ


НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ


ТВЕРЬ - САХАРОВО 1999


Составители: преподаватели: И.С. Ванина, Е.Л. Круглая, старшие препода-

ватели: А.Ю. Лапшин, А.В. Стасюк


Рецензент: кафедра иностранных языков ТвГУ


Ответственный за выпуск: А.А. Романов, д.ф.н., профессор


В данных разработках представлены тексты по темам, предлагаемым для обсуждения на занятиях по развитию навыков устной речи на английском языке. К текстам прилагается список слов, необходимых для более полного понимания их содержания, а также послетекстовые задания.

Предназначено для студентов I-II курса.


Customs and Traditions in Great Britain


a bowler hat котелок

a saint святой

to send valentine cards to посылать валентинки кому-либо

April Fool's Day День Смеха

a master хозяин

to wash one's face with dew умывать лицо росой

to dance round the Maypole танцевать вокруг Майского Шеста

to build a bonfire устроить костёр

to cut one's head off отрубить голову кому-либо

to use a guy использовать чучело


Public Holidays in the USA


to see the old year off and the new year in провожать старый год и встречать

новый

Decoration Day День Поминовения

is observed празднуется

a day of remembrance of … день поминовения тех, …

Thanksgiving Day День Благодарения

the Pilgrims английские пуритане, основавшие

колонию в Плимуте в 1620 году

begging treats or playing pranks выпрашивая угощение или устраи-

вая проказы


Environmental Protection


to absorb smth. поглощать что-либо

waste products отходы

pollution загрязнение окружающей среды

to damage нанести вред

a consequence of последствие чего-либо

water shortage нехватка воды

abuse of arable lands неправильное использование

земель

to arise from возникать вследствие чего-либо

to suffer an environmental problem сталкиваться с проблемой окружа-

ющей среды

to be under threat быть под угрозой


26

Washington D. C.


to stand for олицетворять, символизировать

a track of land полоса (земли)

skyscraper небоскрёб

the President executive mansion резиденция Президента

to be held проводиться, происходить

receptions приёмы


Canada


vast обширный

conditions условия

scenery пейзаж, ландшафт

hut хижина

to seek notoriety искать известности


Britain's Universities


to be given university status получить университетский статус

Bachelor of Arts or Science бакалавр гуманитарных или есте-

ственных наук

to receive a grant получать стипендию

Local Education Authority местный орган образования

to pay for accommodation платить за жильё

a hall of residence общежитие

a tutorial практическое занятие


Higher Education in the USA


to have a special subject area специализироваться в к.-л. области

a humanity гуманитарный предмет

a social science общественная наука

a natural science естественная наука

a program for undergraduates программа для студентов

programs for graduate and professional программы для аспирантов и про-

study фессионального обучения

a course in academic subjects академический курс

job training обучение профессии


25

MY FAMILY


1.Let me introduce myself. My name is … … … .

2.I am a first-year student of the Tver Agricultural Academy.

3.I left school and passed my entrance examinations several months ago.

4.I entered the Tver Agricultural Academy.

5.In five years I will graduate from the Academy and become an … .

6.Drawing is my hobby. I am just a beginner. I am fond of visiting art exhibitions.

7.I usually spend my week-ends with my family out of town.

8.I have a family. My family is (not very) large.

9.It consists of five members: my mother, my father, my sister, my brother and me.

10.So my parents have two more children besides me. I have a younger brother and an elder sister.

11.My mother's name is … … … . She is a teacher (...).

12.She is a fine-looking woman of forty (...).

13.She is clever but a little unpractical.

14.My father's name is … … … . He is a worker (...).

15.He is a strong and hard-working man. He is fond of sport. He likes to spend his week-ends playing tennis.

16.My younger brother is a schoolboy. He is … years old. His hobby is … . He is a first-class footballer.

17.My elder sister is twenty-two (…) years old. She has a family of her own.

18.Her husband's name is … . He is a surgeon by profession. They have a child.

19.My grandparents are pensioners. But they are full of life and energy.


Answer the following questions:

1.What is your name?

2.Where have you come from? When were you born?

3.What are you (by profession)? What do you do? What is your occupation?

4.What is your mother's name? What is your father's name? What is your brother's (sister's) name?

5.How old is your mother (father, sister, brother)?

6.What are your parents?

7.Are you married?

8.What is your hobby? What is your brother's (sister's) hobby?

9.Have you grandparents?


2

MOSCOW

Moscow was founded in 1147 by Prince Yuri Dolgoruki. His father was the famous Vladimir Monomakh, Prince of Kiev. Prince Yuri built a fortress where the Moskva river and the Neglinnaya river meet. This became an important trading post and then the capital of the rapidly growing principality of Moscow. It was burnt down by the Tatars several times.

In 1712 Peter the First moved the capital to St. Petersburg, a strategic point on the Baltic Sea, but Moscow continued to be the most typical Russian city. It became the capital again after the Great October Revolution. On the initiative of V.I.Lenin, in 1918, new Government moved from Petrograd to the Kremlin and Moscow became the capital of the first socialist state.

Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world. Like Kiev and Rome it is situated on the seven hills. Moscow was built outward from its heart, the Kremlin, which was originally an island. The map of the city today looks like a wheel with broad spokes leading out to concentric avenues.

Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It has a dramatic past made real and magnificent by the Kremlin and other monuments. It is not only a seat of the government. There are such institutions as the Academy of Science, Moscow University and a number of Higher educational establishments here. Here are the Bolshoi Theatre, the Moscow Art Theatre, the Kremlin Palace of Congresses and other well-known theatres.

Moscow is also an important industrial and transport centre. It is one of the most important railway centres. Moscow Canal is of a great importance as Moscow is a significant port deep inside the country.

The most magnificent sights of Moscow are the Kremlin and Red Square. The symbol of the Kremlin is the Spassky Tower with its ruby star which shines from the tower at night. This is a very old tower. In fact it is over 500 years old. It was built in 1491 as the Frolovski Tower and about 400 years ago it was renamed the Spassky Tower. It is 71 metres high. The Spassky Tower is one of the twenty towers of the Moscow Kremlin. The brick wall around the Kremlin is two kilometres long.

The clock on the Tower is known to everybody as "Kremlyovskie Kuranty" (Kremlin Chimes) and was first mounted in 1851-52. The hour-hand is 2,97 metres long, the minute-hand - 3,28 metres.


Answer the following questions:


1.When was Moscow founded? By whom was it founded?

2.When did Moscow become the capital?


3

London


to stretch простираться

helicopter вертолёт

nearly около, приблизительно

numerous многочисленный

throughfare проход, проезд

to be crowned быть коронованным

to be buried быть похороненным

monument to памятник кому-либо


Northern Ireland


Eire Эйре

Gaelic гэльский язык

sandpit песчаный карьер

to fence огораживать

to grant позволять

to exclude исключать

to resent негодовать

disturbances волнения

to exploit злоупотреблять

to impose troops вводить войска

mainland самый большой остров

unit подразделение

unrest волнения


The United States of America


trade routes торговые пути

in poverty в бедности

to border on … граничить с …

"the Stars and Stripes and Old Glory" "звёзды, полосы и древняя слава"

alternately чередуясь, через одну

bundel of rods пучок розг

stamp burrels клеймить бочки (ставить клеймо)

national emblem государственный герб

nickname прозвище


24

regulations правила

to be founded быть основанным

to be situated быть расположенным

department отделение

chair кафедра

to deliver lectures читать лекции

to leave for уходить куда-либо

to take place проходить, состояться

to conduct experiments проводить эксперименты

at the disposal of smb. в чьём-либо распоряжении

to provide smb. with smth. обеспечивать кого-либо чем-либо

activities деятельность


The Town of Tver


рrovince область

people of Novgorod новгородцы

textile mill текстильная фабрика

railway carriage building plant вагоностроительный завод

to turn out выпускать (продукцию)

artificial leather combine комбинат искусственных кож

synthetic fibre синтетическое волокно

higher educational establishment высшее учебное заведение


Great Britain


an island neighbour островной сосед

to have a variety of landscapes иметь разнообразный ландшафт

bleak moors унылые торфяные болота

an ocean current океаническое течение

at the same latitude на той же широте

to be many centuries in the making формироваться в течение столетий

to conquer завоевать

to subdue the independent tribes подчинить независимые племена

Angles, Saxons, Jutes Англы, Саксы, Юты

Vikings, Normans Викинги, Норманны

to wage a colonial war вести колониальную войну

the powers власть

the sovereign монарх


23

3.Why did Peter the Great move the capital to St. Petersburg?

4.What does the map of the city of Moscow look like?

5.What institutions is Moscow famous for?

6.What are the most magnificent sights in Moscow?

7.When was the Spassky Tower built?

8.How high is the Spassky Tower?


STUDENTS' LIFE


Let me tell you something about students life at the Tver Agricultural Acade-my and my impressions of it. At first it was all so new. There were new customs, rules and regulations.

There are more than 2000 students at our academy this year. The students are mainly from the Tver province but there are a plenty of others; as you can see, there are students who came here from different parts of the country.

The Tver Agricultural Academy was founded in 1972. The Academy is situated in five buildings. They are modern and of a good design. The Academy has the following departments: the agronomical, the economical, the zooengineering and the department of mechanization of agriculture. There are various chairs at the Academy, among them is the chair of foreign languages. Teachers and assistants deliver lectures and direct the practical training of the students.

Our first lecture usually begins at half past eight and that is why I get up at seven o'clock, do my morning exercises, make my bed, have breakfast and leave for the Academy. As I live far from the Academy I get there by bus. I'm always in time for the lessons. I listen to the lecturers, make notes, have practical training and conduct many interesting experiments. In the afternoon we are free. We have our dinner in the Academy dining-room. There is a large library at the disposal of our students which provides us with textbooks and literature on special subjects. Periodicals are provided for reading in the reading-hall as well as at the chairs.

Time passes quickly. In the evening I usually walk in the park, go to see my friends, watch TV or read newspapers and books.

There are many clubs and societies at the Academy. Sporting activities are numerous.


Answer the following questions:


1. When was the Tver Agricultural Academy founded?

2. Where is the Academy situated?

3.How many departments are there at the Academy? What are they?


4

4.What is the number of students there?

5.What societies and clubs are there at the Academy?

6.Do students go in for sports? What is your favourite sport?

7.When did you enter the Academy? What department do you study at?


THE TOWN OF TVER


The town of Tver stands on the great Russian river Volga. Tver is one of the oldest Russian towns and it is an administrative, industrial and cultural centre of the Tver province.

Tver was founded in the 12th century by the people of Novgorod and played an important part in the early history of our country. In 1755 Tver became the principle town of the Tver province.

Many famous Russian writers came to Tver, some of them lived there. The great fable-writer Krylov passed his childhood and youth in Tver. A.S.Pushkin visited Tver several times and even wrote one of the chapters of his "Onegin" here. The great Russian writer M.E.Saltykov-Shedrin was the vice-governor of our town during three years.

In the second part of the 19th century Tver became a large industrial town. Here appeared large textile mills and a railway carriage building plant.

Among the enterprises built after the Great Patriotic War are: a printing and publishing combine which turns out millions of copies of textbooks and magazines and a combine of children' books; an artificial fibre combine; an artificial leather combine; an excavator plant and many others.

Tver has become a big cultural centre. There are many libraries, about ten cine-mas, more than twenty clubs and palaces of culture. We can visit several museums, an Art Picture Gallery, many exhibitions, Drama Theatre, Children Theatre, Puppet Theatre, Philharmonic Society, Circus.

Tver is the town of students. There are many higher educational establishments both state and private in Tver. Thousands of students from all over the country and from abroad study at the Tver State University, the Tver State Polytechnical University, the Tver State Military University, the Tver State Medical Academy, the Tver State Agricultural Academy.


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