Умк для гуманитарных специальностей (ггпи)




НазваниеУмк для гуманитарных специальностей (ггпи)
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Задания и ключи.

(4 семестр)


I. Переделайте из косвенной речи в прямую.

1. He said to me, “I invite you to go to dinner with me.” (He said to me, “Let’s go to dinner with me.”)

2. They warned me, “Don’t be home late.”

3. She asked me, “Bring the book back.”

4. She said to me, “Please, go to the party with me.”

5. We reminded them, “Ask your parents about the trip.”


II. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках в нужном времени.

Is, lives, works, has been working, is staying, enjoys, have already visited, have been, saw, had, went, have not come (didn’t come), was.


III. Раскройте скобки, употребив Present Perfect Continuous.

    1. has been living

    2. have the children been playing?

    3. has been digging

    4. has been teaching

    5. has been making


IV. Раскройте скобки, употребив Past Perfect Continuous.

    1. had been working

    2. had been smoking

    3. had been listening

    4. had been lying

    5. had been snowing


V. Выберите верную форму инфинитива так, что бы закончить предложение.

1. to fear 3. to discuss

2. be taught

VI. Используйте If (если) или When (когда).

1. if 4. when

2. if 5. if

3. when


Формулировка заданий является инструкцией для пользователей – преподавателей и студентов.

Длительность выполнения заданий – 80 минут.

Методика проведения контрольного мероприятия:

  • предоставление каждому студенту экземпляра контрольной работы;

  • разъяснение технологии выполнения заданий;

  • наличие или отсутствие возможности пользоваться словарем.

Критерии оценок (в %):

- от 0 до 49 “неуд.”

- от 50 до 69 “удовл.”

- от 70 до 89 “хорошо”

- от 90 до 100 “отлично”


Описание статистических процедур, используемых для обработки результатов контрольного мероприятия: подсчет общего количества заданий, подсчет общего количества правильных ответов, вычисление процентного отношения правильных ответов.



  1. ИТОГОВЫЙ КОНТРОЛЬ (перечень вопросов к зачету и экзамену)



Требования к зачету.


  1. Знание пройденных тем.

  2. Знание лексики по пройденным темам.

  3. Знание 3-х форм наиболее употребительных глаголов.

  4. Перевод текста по специальности со словарем.

  5. Грамматическая контрольная работа.


Примерный перечень вопросов к зачету:



  1. Знание слов по теме «Students’ Life» (по темам: «My Family», «I am a Student», «Students’ Leisure»» из пособия «Учебно-методические рекомендации по английскому языку», ч.1); «My Native Place» (Glazov, My Village); «London», «Great Britain».

  2. Знание форм 20 неправильных глаголов: to be, to become, to begin, to build, to come , to do, to fall, to fell, to fight, to find, to forget, to get, to give, to go, to grow, to have, to hear, to know, to leave, to let, to make, to meet, to put, to read, to run, to say, to see, to send, to shine, to show, to sit, to speak, to stand, to take, to teach, to tell, to think, to understand, to write, to ring, to buy, to beat, to blow, to break, to catch, to choose, to cost, to cut, to deal, to draw, to drink, to eat, to fly, to forbid, to freeze, to hide, to hold, to hurt, to keep.

  3. Перевод текста (750 п.зн. за 35 мин.) со словарем общего содержания.

  4. Беседа по темам «Students’ Life» («I am a Student», «My Family», «Students’ Leisure»), «My Native Place» (Glazov, My Village), «London», «Great Britain» и умение отвечать на все виды вопросов по темам.

  5. Грамматическая контрольная работа по следующим аспектам: глаголы «to be», «to have» в утвердительных, вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях. Оборот «there is / are». Местоимения личные, притяжательные, указательные и неопределённо-личные. Простое настоящее время, существительные, прилагательные, местоимения, наречия, причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени, группы простого и продолжительного времени, совершенное время модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, основные формы глагола, страдательный залог, перевод при согласовании времен.



Требования к экзамену.


1. Сообщение по теме (10 тем).

  1. Перевод текста по специальности со словарем (600 п.з.)

  2. Пересказ текста на английском языке без словаря.


Перечень вопросов к экзамену

(по специальностям: русский язык и литература, педагогика и методика начального образования, педагогика и методика дошкольного образования, социальная педагогика):


I. Read and translate the text

1. Read and translate the text «SWIFT - THE GREATEST WRITER OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT».

2. Read and translate the text «THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH REALISTIC NOVEL».

3. Read and translate the text «MAXIM GORKY ON THE BALLADS OF ROBIN HOOD».

4. Read and translate the text «THE LIFE OF SHAKESPEARE».

5. Read and translate the text «SHAKESPEARE’ S PLAYS».

6. Read and translate the text «THE THIRD PERIOD».

7. Read and translate the text «THE SONNETS».

8. Read and translate the text «SHAKESPEARE’S IMMORTALITY».

9. Read and translate the text «ROBINSON CRUSOE».

10. Read and translate the text «DEFOE’S CONTRIBUTION TO LITERATURE».

11. Read and translate the text «JONATHAN SWIFT».

12. Read and translate the text «Historical Background».

13. Read and translate the text «Robert Burns».

14. Read and translate the text «Elizabeth Gaskell».


II. 1. Retell the text «The People’s Friendship University».

2. Retell the text «The Finals».

3. Retell the text «V. A. Sukhomlinsky».

4. Retell the text «Education in England and Wales».

5. Retell the text «Cambridge».

6. Retell the text «M.V. Lomonosov».

7. Retell the text «Teacher, Writer. Citizen».

8. Retell the text « Makarenko Anton Semyenovich (1888 – 1939)».

  1. Retell the text «Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich».

10. Retell the text «At School in Britain».

11. Retell the text « About Education in Great Britain».

12. Retell the text «Higher Education in Great Britain».

13. Retell the text «Education in Great Britain».

14. Retell the text «Life at College and University».


III. Одна из устных тем:

1. I am a Student.

2. My Family.

3. Student’s Leisure.

4. My Native Place .

  1. London.

  2. Great Britain.

  3. Education in Great Britain.

  4. My Future Profession.

9. A Famous Pedagogue (Poet, Writer).

10. The Student’s Life.

Перечень вопросов к экзамену

(по специальности: история):


I. Read and translate the text

  1. Read and translate the text «The English Language».

  2. Read and translate the text «The Great Lord Novgorod».

  3. Read and translate the text «The Tatar Conquest».

  4. Read and translate the text «Ancient Novgorod».

  5. Read and translate the text «Who were the Indians?».

  6. Read and translate the text «From the History of English Language».№ 4

  7. Read and translate the text «The Roman Conquest of Britain».

  8. Read and translate the text «The War of Independence or the American Bourgeois Revolution».

  9. Read and translate the text «The Native American».

  10. Read and translate the text «The Patriotic War of 1812».

  11. Read and translate the text «Pushkin and our Time».

  12. Read and translate the text «An Outstanding Scientist Lomonosov».

  13. Read and translate the text «The Norman Conquest of England».

  14. Read and translate the text «A Few Facts from Early English History».

  15. Read and translate the text «The Battle of Kulikovo».

  16. Read and translate the text «From the History of English Language». № 5


II. 1. Retell the text «The People’s Friendship University».

2. Retell the text «The Finals».

3. Retell the text «V. A. Sukhomlinsky».

4. Retell the text «Education in England and Wales».

5. Retell the text «Cambridge».

6. Retell the text «M.V. Lomonosov».

7. Retell the text «Teacher, Writer. Citizen».

8. Retell the text « Makarenko Anton Semyenovich (1888 – 1939)».

  1. Retell the text «Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich».

10. Retell the text «At School in Britain».

11. Retell the text « About Education in Great Britain».

12. Retell the text «Higher Education in Great Britain».

13. Retell the text «Education in Great Britain».

14. Retell the text «Life at College and University».

15. Retell the text «Cambridge University».

16. Retell the text «The Fourth of July – US Independence Day».


III. Одна из устных тем:

1. I am a Student.

2. My Family.

3. Student’s Leisure.

4. My Native Place.

  1. London.

  2. Great Britain.

  3. Education in Great Britain.

  4. My Future Profession.

9. A Famous Pedagogue (Scientist).

10. The Student’s Life.


Перечень вопросов к экзамену

(по специальности: музыкальное образование):


I. Read and translate the text

  1. Read and translate the text «Prokofiev’s Early Operas».

  2. Read and translate the text «D. Shostakovich».

  3. Read and translate the text «Glinka».

  4. Read and translate the text «The Russian Opera».

  5. Read and translate the text «Tchaikovsky in England».

  6. Read and translate the text «Dmitry Kabalevsky».

  7. Read and translate the text «Sergei Rakhmaninov».

  8. Read and translate the text «Glazunov».

  9. Read and translate the text «Russian Symphony Concerts».

  10. Read and translate the text «Borodin».


II. 1. Retell the text «A Talkative Woman».

2. Retell the text «A Mistake».

3. Retell the text «Joseph Haydn».

4. Retell the text «Enrico Caruso».

5. Retell the text «A Lover of Music».

6. Retell the text «Balzac and the Thief».

7. Retell the text «The Letter–Box Key».

8. Retell the text «What his Life was Worth».

9. Retell the text «A Store about Balzac».

10. Retell the text «A Sad Story».


III. Одна из устных тем:

1. I am a Student.

2. My Family.

3. Student’s Leisure.

4. My Native Place.

5. London.

  1. Great Britain.

  2. Education in Great Britain.

  3. My Future Profession.

9. A Famous Pedagogue (Musician).

10. The Student’s Life.


Составители: Смирнова М.Н., Литвинова Л.В., Шафорост Г.И., Литвинова Е.С., Бякова И.В., Касимова О.Г.

Использованные документы: программы по иностранному языку для неспециальных факультетов.


Экзаменационные материалы (тексты)


Тексты для истфака

Тексты для чтения и перевода


Read and translate the text : The English Language.


We can distinguish three major periods in the evolution of the English language. The first, called Old English, covers the period from the very beginning of the language to the year 1100; the second, Middle English, from 1100 to 1500; and Modern English from 1500 to the present.

During the Old English period most additions to the English vocabulary were based on native English words. Old words were given new meanings; new words were formed by the addition of prefixes or suffixes or by compounding. Latin was the most influential foreign language. The Scandinavians also influence the language spoken.

The Middle English period was marked by great extension of foreign influence on English. The Norman Conquest in 1066 brought England under French rule. The English language, though it did not die, was for a time only of secondary importance. French became the language of the upper classes in England. The lower classes continued to speak English but many French words were borrowed into English. For hundreds of years the ordinary people in England continued to speak their own dialects.

Modern English still derives much of its learned vocabulary from Latin and from Greek, words were also borrowed from nearly all European languages.


Read and translate the text : The Great Lord Novgorod


Novgorod or «The Great Lord Novgorod» as the town was named in ancient times was a very rich town - rich in crafts. It carried on a lively commerce with many European cities. It was also a cultural centre.

Innumerable legends are connected with the Great Lord Novgorod. One of the most poetic of them is the story of Sadko, a Novgorod merchant who won the love of the river - nymph, Volkhova. This legend was set to music by Rymsky-Korsakov in the 19th century.

Thousands of people go to Novgorod to see its architecture. Houses, shops and public buildings were constructed mostly of wood in ancient times, and so they have not come down to us. Churches and monasteries, however, were built of stone, and the town is full of them. Indeed no other town in Russia has preserved such a great number of buildings dating from the 11th to the 17th centuries as Novgorod.

This town - museum was almost completely ruined during German occupation. After the war the town was restored and reconstructed. The new planning was so successful that now the domes of its churches and monasteries and the towers of its Kremlin can be seen from every street and square. Almost all of the old buildings have been turned into museums.


Read and translate the text : "The Tartar Conquest"


The old Russian state grew bigger and stronger. More land was cleared of trees and put under plough. Rich and beautiful cities were built. Some became capital of separate principalities. The principalities of Vladimir, Smolensk and Ryazan grew powerful. Local princes, the rulers of these principalities, did not want to obey the Prince of Kiev. They also quarreled among themselves and often captured cities and villages from one another. As a result Kiev Rus was divided into a number of independent principalities.

In the 13th century the Mongol -Tartar hordes, nomad horsemen from the steppe lands of Centra Asia, fell upon Russia. The Prince of Ryazan, the first city to be attacked in 1237 by the Tartar Khan Batu, asked the other Russian princes for help. But no help came. The princes fought amongst themselves, and each one hoped that the Tartars would leave him alone.

The people of Ryazan heroically defended their city but could do nothing. The Mongol -Tartars attacked from every side. Ryazan fell. Khan Batu and his hordes went further into Russia, leaving ashes and ruins behind them. For four long years Russia fought the inva­ders. In 1240, Batu laid siege to Kiev. The city was taken by storm, its last defenders fell beneath the ruins of the stone church where they fought to the end.


Read and translate the text : “Ancient Novgorod"


Of the few Russian cities to survive the Mongol -Tartar invasion, the largest was Novgorod, or Novgorod the Great as it used to be called.

The principality of Novgorod stretched from the Gulf of Finland to the White Sea and the Urals Mountains. Trade made the city famous and wealthy. German, Danish, Swedish and Arab ships up the Volkhov River to Novgorod. The merchants of Novgorod took fur, honey, beeswax and linen to countries overseas.

This principality was governed not by a prince as in other Russian regions, but by a veche, an assembly of people. All the adult men of the city attended the veche. However, the rich boyars and merchants, who were elected by the veche to be the city's rulers decided all important questions. To defend Novgorod from its enemies the veche would invite a prince ,and his druzhina from other parts of Russia.

In 1240 the Swedish knights attacked Russia from the West. They wanted to capture the rich lands of Novgorod. The prince Alexander Yaroslavich and his druzhina defeated the Swedish forces on the Neva River, after which he was known as Prince Alexander Nevsky. In 1242, the Teutonics knights had chosen a good moment to attack the country. At the time when Russia lay in ruins after the Mongol -Tartar invasion, the knights hoped that the other principalities would be unable to help Novgorod. After the battle on Lake Chudskoye in April 1242, the Teutonic knights never tried again to attack Russia.


Read and translate the text : "The Roman Conquest of Britain"


The conquest of Britain by Rome began in 43 A.D. (Anno Domini). And their rule over Britain lasted for about four centuries. During this period a great part of the land was cleared for cultivation, many new towns were built, roads in all directions were made and a number of forts grew up for the defense of the frontiers.

Britain, now a Roman province, was frequently troubled by the Picts and Scots, the Celtic tribes which had escaped the Roman conquest and settled in Scotland and Ireland. But in the fifth cen­tury other enemies appeared. These were Germanic tribes: the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. By this time the Britons were left on the island alone to defend their country, as the Roman legions had been withdrawn to the Continent to defend Rome from the Germanic tribes.

We know very few details of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. We know that they belonged to the Germanic tribes. Before their raid on Britain the invaders lived on the Danish peninsula and at the estuary of the river Elbe. The details of the invasion are lost in the dim light of unrecorded history.

The Anglo-Saxon colonies began on the coast-line of the eastern half of England and worked their way slowly inland. The social order of these tribes preserved the early organization of human society in its transition stage from kindred order to that of feudalism. The unit of settlements was the kindred (clan), a large family or a group of families.


Read and translate the text "The Patriotic War of 1812"


On the night of June 23, 1812, the French Army of 600 000 men crossed the frontier river. The invasion of Russia had begun. This enormous army, larger than any other at the time, was led against Russia by the French Emperor, Napoleon. He had already seized many European countries and had now turned to Russia. He had under his command not only Frenchmen but also soldiers from the countries he had seized.

When the war began the French army was three times the size of the Russian army. The Russians retreated. They avoided a general engagement as they were still not strong enough. Meanwhile the people rose up to defend their country. They formed partisan detach­ments in many places occupied by the enemy in Lithuania, Byelorussia and Western Russia.

A general battle took place near the village of Borodino, 110 kilometres west of Moscow. The battle began at daybreak on August 26. As evening fell the guns gradually stopped firing, The battle was over. The field of Borodino presented a terrible sight. Never before had the French conquerors seen so many dead - the French lost 60 000 men, the Russians, 40 000.

At dawn on August 27, the Russian army retreated towards Moscow. To win a decisive victory over the enemy Kutuzov needed more men and ammunition. The French army occupied Moscow. "The loss of Moscow does not mean the loss of Russia”, Kutuzov said and began to prepare for another battle.


Read and translate the text : "A Few Facts from Early English History"


The first settlers in Britain belonged to the Celtic tribes, which before their arrival in Britain, had spread over what is now Germany, Prance and Spain. These first Celtic invaders are known as the Goidels, and their language survives in some parts of Ireland and Scotland.

About two centuries late a new wave of Celtic tribes known as Britons landed on the snores of Britain. They spoke a different language from that of the Goidels. The modern language spoken in Wales is a survival of their language.

The Celtic tribes lived in tribes based on kinship.

In 55 B.C. (Before Christ) Julius Caesar landed with his troops on the shores of Britain. But Julius Caesar’s raids upon Britain at that time were in no sense a Roman conquest of the country.

The actual conquest of Britain by Rome began one hundred years later, in 43 A.D. (Anno Domini). And their rule over Britain lasted for about four centuries. During this period a considerable part of the land was cleared for cultivation, many new towns grew up, roads in all directions were made and a number of forts were built for the defense of the frontiers.


Read and translate the text : The Battle of Kulikovo


By the late 13th century Moscow had become the centre of an in­dependent principality. In the 14th century the Moscow Prince Ivan Kalita, the grandson of Alexander Nevsky, became Grand Prince, the head of all the Russian princes. By the reign of Ivan Kalita’s grandson, Prince Dmitri, Moscow had already many Russian principa­lities under its rule.

The Tartar khans were alarmed by Moscow's growing strength. They were afraid they would lose their power over Russia. So in the summer of 1380 Khan Mamai of the Golden Horde led his vast army against Russia.

Dmitri called all who could bear arms to join his troops. The large Russian army of 150 000 men marched south to meet the enemy. On September 7, they crossed the Don River and took their positions on the field of Kulikovo. On the morning of September 8, the battle began. The Russian troops crushed the Mamai’s army. In honour of the victory won on the banks of the Don, Prince Dmitri was called Donskoi. Though the battle of Kulikovo had dealt the Golden Horde a powerful blow, its rule was not yet completely broken. However, the blood shed on the field of Kulikovo had not been spilled in vain. The people understood that the hatred rule of the Tartar khans could be overthrown. The battle of Kulikovo was the first step towards the liberation of the Russian and other peoples from Mongol -Tartar rule.

The Great Lord Novgorod.


Most modern towns in one and the same country are like each other though they vary in size and are situated in different parts of the country. But there are a few towns that are unique. Such towns are of great interest; they show us things we have never seen or known before. Such a town is Novgorod or «The Great Lord Novgorod» as it was named in ancient times.

The Novgorod Kremlin is a collection of architectural and historical buildings. Among them is the wonderful Sofia Cathedral, built in 1045-1050, one of the oldest structures in Novgorod and one of the finest examples of ancient Russian architecture.

All the churches of Novgorod are unique historical and architectural monuments. People often come to Novgorod to see the frescoes painted by Theophane the Greek, the famous artist of the 14th century. Born in Byzantium [ bi’z n i m], he lived in Russia over 30 years and decorated about 40 churches. The Novgorod frescoes are some of the few works by Theophane the Greek that have come down to us.

In the past Novgorod was a very rich town - rich in crafts. It carried on a lively commerce with many European cities. It was also a cultural centre.

But it would be wrong to think that Novgorod lived only in the past. It is a modern town with many industrial enter prizes. It is also the administrative centre of the Novgorod district.

Thousands of tourists visit Novgorod every year.

Who Were the Indians?


In 1492, an Italian navigator named Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain in search of a sea route to Asia. Columbus hoped to obtain access to the wealth of spices, silks and gold for which the Asian continent was famous. Six weeks later his men sighted land.

Thinking he had landed in the Indies, a group of islands east of the coast of Asia, he called the people on the first island on which he landed «los Indies», or in English «Indians». Of course, Columbus had not reached Asia at all. He had landed in the New World (the American continent). But the name «Indians» remained fixed in the English language.

Scientists speculate that people first came to North America during the last ice age. At that time, much of the earth' s water was frozen in the glaciers that covered large parts of the globe. As sea level dropped, a strip of land was exposed in the area that is now Bering Strait. Man probably followed the big game he was hunting across this land bridge from Siberia into Alaska.

Over time, these people increased in number, adapted to different environments and spread from the far northern reaches of Alaska and Canada to the tip of South America.

Different as they were, all Indian tribes were greatly affected by the coming of the white man with his firearms, horses, wheeled vehicles and with his diseases, to which the Indians had no immunities. The European arrival changed the Indian way of life for ever.

The War of Independence or the American

Bouregeois Revolution (1775-1783).


The rapid development of the British Colonies in America in the 18th century gave rise to the so - called «American problem». The French and Indian War was over in 1763. The American colonies helped England in this war. The northern country of Canada now belonged to England and the French were driven out of the fertile western river valleys. George III, King of England, wanted to draw the American colonies closer to Great Britain. New laws were passed and the colonists had to pay new high taxes to support England. These post-war decisions stimulated an ever growing movement of protest which exploded into the War of Independence.

In 1774 13 colonies sent their delegates to a Continental Congress in Philadelphia. On July 4, 1776 the delegates signed the document known as the Declaration of Independence, and declared the establishment of the United States of America. Since then July 4 is celebrated by the Americans as a national holiday - Independence Day.

The Continental Congress authorized an American army appointing. George Washington its commander. But Britain did not agree with the Declazation until 1783, when the American colonists won in the War of Independence. So after the years of bitter fighting the United States at last were recognized as a new independent country. George Washington had led the army in its successful fight. He was elected the new country’s first president.


The Native American.


The story of the Native American - or American Indian - is one that unique, tragic and ultimately inspiring. The Indians were the original inhabitants of the American continent.

Today Native Americans are full citizens of the United States. They are proud of their own cultural heritage, which they are trying to protect and maintain it.

Marks of that heritage can be found all over the United States. Many of the names on United States maps - Massachusetts, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas - are Indian words. Indians taught the Europeans how to cultivate crops such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco. Canoes and mocasins are all Indian inventions. Indian handicrafted articles such as pottery, silver jewelry, paintings and woven rugs are highly prized.

About half of the Indians in the United States live in large cities and rural areas scattered throughout the country. The remainder live on about 300 federal reservations, most of which are located west of the Mississippi River.

From 1970 to 1980 the Native American population in the United States increased by 72 per cent. Today, there are about 1,4 million Native Americans, which is believed to be more than there were when the first European explorers arrived in the New World. At that time, about one million Native Americans were living in North America. These people were soon overwhelmed by a flood of European settlers.


Pushkin and Our Time.


Every summer, in June, thousands of people visit the Pskov land. They come here to the village of Mickhailovskoye to the wonderful festival of poetry, to see the places where he lived and worked.

Pushkin is always alive for us, he is the man we all know and love, the greatest of poets. Generations come and go, but Pushkin still remains the sun of our poetry.

We are all grateful (=thankful) to Pushkin for each line of his works, Pushkin is not only a great poet for us. He is the perfect man combining brilliant talent with civil courage and moral integrity. His name is associated with our love for the Motherland, our native language and the best in our life. We are truly lucky to have Pushkin!

Hundreds of new concepts, hundreds of new words, have appeared in our language in the years that have passed since his death, but not a single word of his poetry has become obsolete (= too old). The old forms of life went into the past, but everything written by Pushkin continues to live. It has not become something of the past, it does not need any corrections and hardly needs commentary. His feelings and his views still correspond to our own feelings and views. We admire the great world of Pushkin’s poetry as a whole, each of us finding some special lines for himself, lines showing Pushkin’s great and generous heart, his sympathy and respect for his people.

Everybody who speaks and thinks in Russian measures the beauty of his speech by Pushkin’s language. When we read Pushkin’s works we see portrayal of Russian life, the Russian intellect, the Russian soul, the life of the Russian land in all epochs, the Russian people. The Russian reader cannot imagine his inner world without Pushkin.


An Outstanding Scientist M. V. Lomonosov.


Lomonosov’s historical works cover a fast period -from ancient times to the reign of Peter the Great. He was one of the first scientists to display a serious interest in the rise of the early Russian state. In the early 1750s Lomonosov began to write his «History of Russia». It came off the press(1) a year after his death under the title « Ancient Russian History, from the Beginning of the Russian People to the death of Prince Yaroslav I , or to 1054». The publication of the «History» was an outstanding event in Russian culture. Lomonosov’s ideas about the origin (2) of the Slavs and the important role which they played in European history were new and original Later Alexander Radishchev, the outstanding Russian thinker and writer, expressed his support for Lomonosov’s theory on the origin of the Russian state, it was also developed by the Decembrists, the first Russian revolutionaries. «Ancient Russian History» was well known not only in Russia, but also outside the country. It was translated into German and French.

Among Lomonosov’s other historical works one should mention (3) his «A Short Russian Chronicle» which listed (4) the main events in Russian history from 862 to 1725, his «Description of the Strelets Rebellion and Tsarevna Sophia’s Regency» which Voltaire, the French thinker and philosopher, included in his «History» describing the epoch of Peter I.

Notes to the text:

  1. to come off the press - выходить из печати

  2. origin - происхождение

  3. one should mention - следует упомянуть

  4. to list - давать список, перечислять.


The Norman Conquest of England.


The conquest of England by the Norman began in 1066 with the battle of Hastings. The conquest was over in 1071. Who were these Normans who conquered England? They were Vikings or «Northmen», men from the North. Some 150 years before the conquest of England they came to a part of France opposite England, a part which we now call Normandy. There they adopted the Christian faith and the French language of their new home in France. They became French.

What did the Norman Conquest do to England? It gave it French kings and nobles. The Normans also brought the French language with them. After the Norman conquest there were three languages in England. There was Latin, the language of Church and the language in which the kings and nobles spoke and which many people wrote. Finally, there was the English language which remained the language of the masses of the people. Some men knew all these languages; many new two, but most of the people knew only one. There were some people who understood the French language though they could not speak it Rich people often knew French and Latin. But poor people, the peasants did not understand French or Latin. They understood only English.


FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

TEXT IV.


The ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were the Celts. The language then was not like the English of today. Only a few their words remained in the language now spoken by the English people. Then Great Britain was occupied by the Romans. The Roman period of British history lasted 465 years. The Romans brought a few Roman words into the English language: street, Lincoln, Doncaster and some other names. Then the Saxons came and settied down in the land they conquered. These Germans were the founders of the English nation. By and by came other Germanic tribes who settled on different parts of the coast. Among these tribes were people called Angles. When the Angles and Saxons grew into one, they were called Anglo-Saxons, or Angles (English). The general name which they gave to the country in which they had settled was England. The

Saxons as well as the Angles called their speech English.

The Normans came to Great Britain in 1066 and the great battle between the English and Normans began. The English had a better position on a hill but the Normans pre-

tended to run away and when the English ran after them they turned on them and cut them down. The battle in which the Normans won was nearer the town of Hastings.

William who was at the head of the Normans was called the Conqueror after this battle. The Normans then marched to Dover, Canterbury and London and conquered all these cities and William the Conqueror became the king of England.

Though the Normans became the masters of England and the Saxons became their servants, the Saxons didn’t want to speak their language and the Normans had to learn English to make the English people understand their orders. In this way Anglo-Saxon changed a little by the Normans became the real English Language of the future and that’s why the pronunciation of English words differs so much from their spelling.


FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

TEXT V.


For a long time there were 3 languages in England. There was Latin, the language of church and law. All learned men wrote and spoke Latin, too. Then there was French, the language of the aristocracy of nobles. Finally there was the English language which remained the language of common people. Gradually the differences between the two races vanished and the use of French died out. The English language prevailed. But the English language when it came into general use was not quite the same as it was before the Conquest. It had been changed in same respects by the French language. Now you can understand why the pronunciation of English words differ so much from their spelling.

As you see very many English words are borrowed from other languages. We can find the remains of Old German words which were brought from the continent. There are many Latin words borrowed by the Anglo-Saxons from the Romans such as wine, money, mill, dish, cock, school and many more.

We find many French words brought by the Normans. And every language has its own rules of pronunciation, and that is why many borrowed words retain their original spelling but changed their pronunciation.


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Cambridge University


Cambridge University is one of the oldest and largest of the British universities. It was founded In Cambridge in 1209. Initially, it consisted of a group of houses, or "colleges", housing students who attended lectures given intermittently by scholars. Gradually the lecturing system bеcаmе more organized. As early as the 13th century the traditional courses - the humanities, jurisp­rudence, tneology, and medicine - had been instituted.

In the 16tn century Thomas More was one of the trustees of the University. Erasmus of Rotterdam taught there. From 1669 to 1702, Newton was a professor in Саmbridge. In 1837, Charles Darwin re­ceived a master's degree from Cambridge. The Cavendish Laboratory, in which J. C. Maxwell, F. Dirac, J. Thomson, and Rutherford worked, played a prominent role in the revolution in physics at the turn of the century.

The university has retained many traditional features in its organization. As in the past, it consists of colleges that are self-governing corporations. Each college has 300-400 students in various faculties.

The university is headed by the chancellor, who is chosen from among the nigh-ranking officials; the actual director is the vice-chancellor, who has under him a council of the directors of the colleges. Since tuition is high, it is difficult for the children of working people to attend the university.

In 1971 the university had 28 men's and 5 women's colleges and the following faculties: classics, divinity, English, fine arts, modern and medieval languages, music, Oriental studies, economics and politics, history, education, law, engineering, geography and geology, mathematics, physics mad chemistry, agriculture, archaeology and antropology, biology, medicine, and chemical engineering.

The university had a student body of nearly 11 000. Its library contained more than 3 million volumes (1971).


М. V. Lomonosov (1711-1765)


Mikhail Lomonosov is rightly regarded as the founder of Russian science. The significance of his achievements and of his persona­lity are so great that they go beyond the bounds of Russia, for the benefit of which he lived and worked. The outstanding works and discoveries of M. Lomonosov contributed to the development of world science and continue, even today, to serve its progress.

M. Lomonosov's work marked a whole epoch in the history of Russian science and culture. One of the best educated people of his time, he worked in many areas of science and technology, as well as in history and linguistics. He conducted extremely complecated physics and chemistry experiments, and was also a philosoph­er, poet and artist.

His name became a legend, for in the cruel conditions of 18-th century tsarist Russia, he, a peasant’s son from a remote northern village, climbed the peaks of knowledge to bring glory to his country. His brilliant talents and supreme sense of purpose earned him a distinguished place among the finest minds of huma­nity.

The founder of Russian science did not live to see all his works published. However, the works which were published during his lifetime became classics well known to his contemporaries and to subsequent generations of scientists in Russia and abroad, and had a great Influence on the development of science, Lomonosov's scientific discoveries largely determined the directions in which materialist philosophy, the natural sciences and technology, as well as Russian history, linguistics and literature developed.


V.A. Sukhomlinsky (1918-1970)


A prominent Soviet teacher, V.A.3 Sukhomlinsky devoted 35 years of his short life to the upbringing and instruction of children. He began his рedagogiсаl activity in 1935 after graduating from the Poltava Teachers’ Training Institute. For 29 years he was director of a school in the Ukrainian village of Pavlysh, far away from the big cities.

The greatest merit of Sukhomlinsky was that he showed in theory and practice that any healthy child can get a modern secondary education in an ordinary public school without any separation of children into groups of bright and less bright (of able and less able). The main thing for Sukhomlinsky was to awaken the child's desire to learn, to develop a taste for self-education and self-discipline. The teacher must find his way to the heart of every child. This method - finding one's way to the heart of the child was the foundation of the wоrk V.A. Sukhomlinsky did in education.

In the last 20 years of his life, V.A. Sukhomlinsky made notes on his observations and reflections which he then used for his books and articles, the best known of which are "To Children I Give My Heart", "The Birth or a Citizen", "The Secondary School in Pavlysh" and "The Wise Power of the Collective". They are the synthesis of the rich experience of this excellent educator.

For his work in education V.A. Sukhomlinsky was awarded the titles of Hero of Socialist Labour and Merited Teacher, was elec­ted Corresponding Member of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR.
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