Умк для гуманитарных специальностей (ггпи)




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Education in England and Wales



All children and young people in England and Wales between the ages of 5 and 16 must receive full-time education. Many 3-and-4-year-old children receive nursery education and about a fifth of 16-to-18-year-olds stay on at school until 18 or 19, the age of entry into higher education. Some 9 700 000 pupils attend Britain’s 36 500 schools, 94 per cent receive free education, the rest attend private fee-paying schools.

Boys and girls are taught together in most schools. In England and Wales non-selective or 'cоmрrеhеnsive’ education is the rule for primary schools and for the vast majority, of secondary schools. Pupils at the age of 16 and over take аn examination (the General Certificate of Secondary Education). The Advanced level (A-level) of the General Certificate of Education, usually taken at IS, is the standard for entrance to university and other higher education courses as well as many forms of professional training.

Over half of all 16-to18-year-old young people take part in some form of post-compulsory education either at school or in further education. About one-seventh of the IS-year-old group take courses at 46 universities, 30 polytechnics, 16 Scottish central institutions and other publicly funded colleges. Many stu­dents on full-time advanced courses receive grants from public funds.

The Open University, using a combination of television and radio broadcasts, correspondence courses and summer schools, provides part-time fee-paid courses for students (some 140 000 in 1986). No formal academic qualification are required to register for these courses.

Some 56 000 foreign students study at British universities, polytechnics and other colleges.

Cambridge



Cambridge is an old city situated 70 kilometres north of London, on the river Сam. It is one of the oldest university cities, with a university dating from the thirteenth century. Cambridge is a beautiful and very green city. Green fields and parks surround the town, green gardens with a lot of flowers surround the colleges of the university.

The population of Cambridge is 103 700 people (1973). Local industry Includes mechanical engeneering (scientific equipment, scientific instruments, radioelectronics), food proceeding, and time.

The first written mention of Cambridge was in 730. During the English Bourgeois Revolution of the I7tn century, Cambridge wаs an important stronghold of the Parliamentary forces. Since the Middle Ages, Cambridge has been a planned city, and the colleges, grouped around square courtyards, form beautiful architectural еnsеmbles. Among the noteworthy buildings are the Late Gothic King's College Chapel (1446-1515), the classical Trinity College library (1676-1684, architect, C. Wren), and the University Senate (1722-173O).

Every year more than one thousand students enter the Cam­bridge university. The entrance examinations are difficult. It is necessary to work hard to become a student of the Cambridge university.

The university of Cambridge has a tutorial system of educa­tion: every student has a tutor (=a teacher) who plans his work. Each week students meet their tutors and discuss different questions connected with their studies. The students have good teachers. The life of the students at Cambridge is interesting.


Теасher, Writer, Citizen


Anyone working in the field of education will be interested in the experiments carried out by Anton Makarenko, the outstand­ing Soviet educator and writer.

All his adult life Makarenko devoted to the education and character-building of the younger generation. He evolved a system for bringing up children within a collective, а sуstem of which he himself made skilful use in his own practical work. Some people believe that upbringing is equivalent to education because they think both are the school's concern. This, of course, is not true. Upbringing means not only the acquisition of academic and practi­cal knowledge in certain areas but also the development of politi­cal, esthetic, moral values, formation of character, and thе strengthening of will power.

Makarenko's initial theoretical principles were born out by practical experience. Organization had to be of such a kind as to ensure that the children themselves took responsibility for everything: for property, the production plan, order and discipline. They themselves would have to mould each other for their future life: to demand, to respect others, to command respect, to snow concern for others and help them.

Makarenko's rich experience in the field of education provided the basis for much vivid writing; his works “The Kоаd to Life”, "Learning to Live” and "Book for Parents" are widely read in the Soviet Union and abroad.

Makarenko’s life was the life of a man whose every thought and emotion were directed into the future.


Makarenko, Anton Semyenovich

(1888-1939)

Anton Макаrеnkо was born in 1888 in the town of Byelopolye in Kharkov Gubernia. In 1895 he started school at the age of seven. Makarenko was a highly intelligent boy and came top of his class right from the start. In 1900 the family moved to Kryukov and Anton started to attend the school which provided a six-year edu­cation. The curriculum appeared highly impressive at first glance; the boys were taught Russian, arithmetic, geography, history, natural science and physics. In addition there were draughtsman ship and drawing lessons, singing, gymnastics and as a matter of course, religious knowledge. However, as a result of the omission of foreign languages and the disparity between the courses in other subjects and those provided in the high schools or ‘gymna­sia’, even the most talented of pupils had no chance of entering the top classes at the latter and of ever enjoying higher educa­tion.

Anton's wide reading and his detailed knowledge of Russian and foreign classical literature were quite extraordinary for a boy of his age. He was equally well-grounded in philosophy, astronomy and natural science. In 1904 Anton graduated from the school with distinction in all subjects and enrolled for a one — year course to train as a primary-school teacher. He completed this course in the spring of 1905 and in the autumn of the same year he started teaching at a two-class primary school.

A. Makarenko proved an excellent teacher. When in 1914 an edu­cation institute was opened in Poltava Makarenko whose passion for study remained unchanged sent off an application to Poltava and after passing the entrance exams became a student.


Ushinsky, Konstantin Dmitrievich

(1824-1870)

Many great Russian philosophers, writers and public figures, though they were not teachers, wrote much on educations. Among them are V. Belinsky (1811-1848), A. Herzen (1812-1370), N. Chernyshevsky (1825-1889), N. Dobrolyubov (1836-1861) and others.

The great educator of the period, K. Ushinsky (1824-1870), is in the fullest sense of the word the founder of the Russian pri­mary school and of pedagogical training for teachers. His books on training teachers, administration and curriculum have, contribu­ted greatly to Russian theory and practice of education. The place of Ushinsky in the history of education is enormous. His works on different problems of education were published in the Soviet Union many times: selected works in two volumes, complete works in eleven volumes, several volumes of "Archive of K.D. Ushinsky".

Ushinsky’s first impressions of Western education decided his future as an educator. According to Ushinsky himself, the articles on American education had a great influence on his mind, his ideas and his convictions. Ushinsky spoke German and knew English, French and Italian. He read books and reports on foreign education in all these languages, thus studying foreign systems of education. In 1862 he had an opportunity for personal inspection of foreign institutions. During the last years of his life Ushinsky lived abroad, visiting educational establishments in Switzerland, Germany, Prance, Belgium, and Italy, and could thus complete his comparative studies of systems of education in various countries.

Ushinsky won the fame of a radical and democratic reformer in the field of education. His ideas on the three "elements" of education - administration, instruction, and training, on the pub­lication of new textbooks, on the foundation of teachers' seminari­es, on the necessity of mother tongue were very important for the development of school education.

At School in Britain



Here are a few interesting facts and figures about the Eng­lish system of education.

All children must, by law, go to school when they are five. They can leave school at fifteen, but many boys and girls stay at school until they are sixteen or seventeen and then go to uni­versity.

TYPES OF SCHOOLS

Primary Education (age 5-11 years). All children go first to an Infant School (age 5-7), then to a Junior School (age 7-11).

Secondary Education (age 11-15 years—or longer). Children go either to a Grammar School, a Secondary Modern School or a Secondary Technical School, a Comprehensive School, or an Independent School.

THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL

The Grammar School takes pupils who want to study the Arts and Sciences, modern lan­guages and the Classics, and prepares them for university. Pupils may stay at the Grammar School until they are seventeen or eighteen.

THE SECONDARY MODERN SCHOOL

More than half the school­children in Britain go to a Sec­ondary Modern School. They study the Arts and Sciences, and modern languages, as well as practical subjects, like wood­work, metalwork, needlework, shorthand and typing.

THE SECONDARY TECHNICAL SCHOOL

The Secondary Technical School fakes pupils who want to study specialized, practical subjects such as commerce, industry and agriculture.

THE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL

The Comprehensive School combines in one school (but not necessarily in one building) the different schools mentioned above. The pupils, therefore, can study any subject which is taught in these schools.

THE INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS

There are about 3,750 inde­pendent schools in Britain, many of which belong to the churches.

Independent schools are often boarding schools and charge fees of between 300 and 550 pounds sterling a year for each pupil. Schools of this type for children of eight to thirteen are called Preparatory Schools. The biggest and most important independent schools, for children of thirteen to eighteen, are the Public Schools. Most of these schools are for boys.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN



The two oldest and best-known universities in Great Bri­tain are Oxford and Cambridge. They are some centures old. They have a tutorial system of education which brings a stu­dent into close and personal contact with his tutor (=teacher). Each student has a tutor who helps the student to plan his work.

Each student must regularly come to see his tutor. They discuss different questions and problems; and the student must tell his tutor everything about his studies. A student write essays and papers on the subject, which he is studying and submits them regularly to his tutor for correction and discussion. Only Oxford and Сambridge have this system of education.

London University where 19 000 students study provides instructions mainly by means of lectures. Full-time stu­dents attend these lectures while the students of extra­mural department come to London only to sit for their exams.

The academic year in England has three terms. Each term lasts about 8-10 weeks. Between the terms the students have their holidays- a month - in winter, a month - in spring and three or four months in summer.

There is a large number of students’ societies and clubs at English universities- political, dramatic, film, sporting and other societies.
ABOUT EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN


Thе oldest and the most celebrated Universities of Great Britain are those in Oxford and Cambridge. There are universi­ties in London, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham and other cities.

There are no state universities in Britain, each of the universities has its own government. It is the state however that defines their status and gives them the power to grant degrees to students. Each university itself decides in what conditions it will grant degrees, but the form off examination and the standards of knowledge and intelligence required for a first degree (Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science) are about the same at all the universities.

Students still have to pay fees. Most students new do some paid work during their vacations, such as keeping at the Post Office at Christmas and doing some seasonal jobs in summer, but practically none do paid work during the term-time.

The first post-graduate degree is normally that of Master given for a thesis based on at least one year’s full-time work.

The degree of Doctor of Philosophy is given for a thesis which is an original contribution to knowledge.

In a few of the biggest universities there are some seminars for postgraduate students, but usually there are no re­gular courses for them.

The university is a sort of federation of colleges. The university prescribes syllabuses, arranges lectures, conducts examinations and awards degrees, but there is no single buil­ding which can be called the University. The colleges and uni­versity buildings are scattered about the town.

Each college is governed by its Fellows of whom there are usually about twenty or thirty and they are аlsо responsible for teaching their own students through the tutorial system.


The People’s Friendship University.


There are seven faculties, each is living it own academic life - the life which began nearly 40 years ago, in 1960. And now more than 10000 PFU graduates are already working in 110 countries. At present about 7000 students and post - graduates from 105 countries are studying at the University. The University is now a great study and scientific centre, which gives training in various branches of science, technology and production.

It is hard to study, and it is much harder to study in a foreign language. But we know that the students of the University work hard to get over all the difficulties to master the Russian language. The do their best to get know ledge which is so necessary for the development of science and culture in their own countries.

News on professional successes of the University former graduates come in every day. In their letters to the teachers and friends the graduates speak of their practical work, their problems and successes and express their gratitude to our country for the opportunity to study and to get education in Russia.

They are also thankful for the opportunity to take part in the trips around our country, as these trips help them to learn more about Russian people, the culture of the country, its art and way of life. They also write that they miss Russia, Moscow and their good friends, and they hope that they will be able to see Red Square and the Kremlin again.

Notes to the text:

graduate - выпускник

post - graduate - аспирант

to master - овладевать чем-либо (языком, профессией)

they do their best - они делают все возможное

former - бывший

to express gratitude - выражать благодарность

opportunity - возможность

trip - поездка, путешествие

to miss - скучать


The Fourth of July - US Independence Day.


The Fourth of July is the biggest national holiday of the US. It is celebrated as the birthday of the country. More than two hundred years ago, on July 4, 1776, when the American colonies were fighting a was against England, the Continental Congress adopted a resolution which has come to be known as the Declaration of Independence. The resolution was written by Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the leader of the democratic wing of the American bourgeoisie. Thomas Jefferson was a bearer of advanced views that have not lost their significance for the social struggle in modern America.

In fact the Declaration of Independence was a letter from the Continental Congress to the king of Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote to the king that the people in America did not want to pay taxes if they were not allowed to decide how to spend the taxes. The letter declared that the people in America wanted to be free and independent of England from that time on. So the letter was called the Declaration of Independence. But it was just a letter, it did not make the American people independent of England, the people had to fight for their independence.

The Declaration of Independence was an important document which had a decisive influence on the development of the American Revolution. It was a great achievement of the popular movement and it influenced bourgeois revolutions in Europe and elsewhere.


The Finals.


A student from Birmingham says: «A month before my finals I received a letter from the University telling me the exact date of my coming examination. When the fateful day arrived, I went into the lecture hall where we had listened to lectures on European history throughout the term. It was now the examination hall. At the high table sat the examiner in cap and gown and the students, too, were dressed in undergraduate gowns.

At 10 o’clock I sat down at my desk and was given a question paper. On it there were 15 questions, out of which I could choose any three. In three hours I was supposed to write three essays. The questions were phrased in a way that required comprehensive and of facts and historical analysis. Before many minutes had passed all the students in the examination hall were writing furiously.

After handing in our papers we had to wait for a whole month before we got the results. Each paper was examined separately by three examiners, who then met to compare marks and make the final decision. This, we were told, would take into account the student’s work, and particularly his essays over the years. But the most important thing is the written examination. There is no oral.

If a student fails in one subject he can take the examination again the following year. If he fails in two he cannot; only under exceptional circumstances can he get permission to sit for the whole examination again the following year».

Notes to the text:

fateful - роковой

gown - мантия

cap - шапочка

comprehensive - исчерпывающий

furiously - рьяно, увлеченно

to hand in - вручать

to take into account - принять во внимание

circumstances - обстоятельства

permission - разрешение

oral - устный

finals = final examinations


Life at College and University.


There are 46 universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol, Birmingham.

The two intellectual eyes of Britain-Oxford and Cambridge Universities - date from the 12th and 13th centuries.

The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh date from the 15th and 16th centuries.

In the 19th and the early part of the 20th centuries the so-called Redbrick(1) universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and Birmingham. During the late 60s and early 70s some 20 «new» universities were founded. Sometimes they are called «concrete and glass» universities(2). Among them are the Universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others.

During these years the Government set up 30 Polytechnics. Some of them offer(3) full-time and sandwich courses(4). Colleges of Education provide two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the graduate specializes in some particular subject.

Some of those who decide to finish school at the age of 16 may go to a further(5) education college where they can follow a course in typing, engineering, town planning, cooking or hairdressing, full-time or part-time. Further education colleges have strong ties(6) with commerce and industry.

There is an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It is intended(7) for people who study in their own free time and who «attend» lectures by watching television and listening to the radio. They keep in touch(8) by telephone and letter with their tutors and attend summer schools. The students or such universities have no formal qualifications and would be unable to enter ordinary universities.

About 80000 overseas students study at British Universities or further education colleges or train in law, banking or in industry.

Notes to the text:

  1. «redbrick universities» - «краснокирпичные» университеты

  2. «concrete and glass» - университеты из бетона и стекла

  3. to offer - предлагать

  4. sandwich course - курсы «сэндвич» (для работающих)

  5. further - дальнейший

  6. ties - связи

  7. it is intended - он предназначается для ...

  8. they keep in touch with - они поддерживают связь с ...



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Prokofiev's Early Operas

In 1900, when Prokofiev was eight years old, his parents took him to Moscow. He saw "The Sleeping Beauty", "Faust" and "Prince Igor" at the Bolshoy Theatre; and there began his lifelong fascination with the theatre. The little boy immediately wanted to compose an opera of his own, and did so: "The Giant", a three-act work to his own libretto, set down in piano score and performed with a family cast. For his next subject he chose "The Cambler"; at this time dramatizations of Dostoevsky novels were providing a success, but so far there had no Dostoevsky Opera. In 1918 Prokofiev had already taken up a new subject for an opera which was called "The love For Three Oranges".


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World famous Soviet composer D. Shostakovich received a 15 minute standing ovation here night after performing his latest work, the 15th Symphony. The Symphony was performed by the National Radio and Televisin orchestra under D. Shostakovich's baton in the Grand Hall of the Moscow Conservatoire.

One may be astonished to learn that the entire work was written in two months last summer. It is composed for an orchestra with an enlarged percussive section. By using Rossini's "William Tell" theme in the first movement, the composer brings in great optimism. In listening to the tragic adagic in the second movement, which opens with melancholy cello solo, 12-tone system in the third movement the composer takes us into a fantastic world. The final is begun by introducting the theme of fate from Wagner's "Vakyrie". Ho doubt the 15th Symphony testifies to the overlasting talent of the composer. (Morning Star, 1972)


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Glinka's music is characterized by its comprehension of life in all its diversity, pointed and clear manner, masterful architectonics, and. the spirit of a bright affirmation of life. His orchestral writing which, combines transparent and impressive sounds is brightly picturesque, with splendour and abundant colour. His masterful orchestration was more fully revealed in his music for stage and his symphonic places. The Valse-Fantasie for orchestra is the first example in classical music of the Russian symphonic Waltz.

His Spanish Overtures laid the foundation for the incorporation in international symphonic music of musical elements from Spanish folklore.

The scherzo for orchestra "Kamarinskaya" (1848) synthesizes the wealth of Russian folk music with the highest achievements of pro­fessional craftsmanship.


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The Russian Opera

The idea of basing a music-drama on Pushkin's tragedy "Boris Godunov" was suggested by Prof. Nikolsky. From September 1868, to June 1870, Mussorgsky was engaged upon this work. Each act as it was finished was tried in a small circle of musical friends, the composer singing all the male roles in turn, while Alexandra Poergold (afterwards M-me Molas) created the women's parts. Dargomyzhsky, who heard a portion of it before his death in 1869, declared that Mussorgsky had entirely surpassed him in his own sphere.

«Boris Godunov» was rejected by the Direction of the Imperial Opera on the ground that it gave too little opportunity to the solists. Portions of Boris were given at the Maryinski Theatre, in February, 1873, but the production of the opera in its entirely was delayed, until January 23th, 1874.


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Tchaikovsky in England

In 1861 P.I. Tchaikovsky first visited England, "London is very interesting", he wrote to his father in St. Petersburg, "but it produces a rather gloomy impression on the soul".

Twenty seven years later Tchaikovsky arrived to London to begin his first foreign tour. He made his debut in London when he conducted his Serenade for Strings and Suite No 3. The great Russian composer's debut was treated as an important event by the London press.

In the following years Tchaikosky visited London again to con-duct his First Piano Concerto and Suite No 3. Tchaikovsky's fourth and final visit was in the last year of his life. In 1884 Tchaikosky wrote that he was studying English, later he mentioned that his progress was very considerable and that he could quite easily read Dickens in the original.

Some of Tchaikovsky's important symphonic works were composed on the themes from great English poets and writers: Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet", "Hamlet" and Byron's "Manfred".


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Dmitry Kabalevsky

Sonata 3 for Piano, Op. 46 (1946)

Kabalevsky's Trird Piano Sonata was heard for the first time in Moscow, at the Moscow Conservatoire, in a performance by Yakov Zak.

A pleasant little tune opens the sonata. The sonority grows and the harmonic texture becomes detailed before the appearance of the second theme - another delightful melody. Both of these themes are quiet and restrained, but an incidental theme, march-like in character, has rhythmic strength and dissonant harmonies.

A song of haunting beauty unfolds in the second movement; it has the simplicity and poignancy of a folk melody. But, almost as if the composer felt that such peace is ephemeral, the music suddenly becomes stormy and febrile as great power is generated. Then the original vein comes back: beauty triumphs over ugliness.

A martial mood is created in the last movement - music of galvanic power and great rhythmic surges which makes one suspect that the recent war was still in the composer's mind. This suspicion is further strengthened by the outcries of jubilation that follow, the uninhibited joy of total victory.


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Sergei Rakhmaninov Concerto 3 in D minor for Piano and Orchestra op. 30 /1909/ The Third Concerto followed the Second by eight years. Having just completed his Third Concerto, he decided to introduce it during his visit. On November 28, 1909, he performed it in Hew York City under Walter Damrosch's direction.

Two introductory measures for orchestra usher in the piano with the first major theme, which is Slavic in character. After this idea has been discussed the second theme enters pianissimo in the strings, and is then elaborated in a passionate section.

The second movement is an intermezzo, the principal of which is a lovely Russian melody, first heard in the woodwinds, then repeated in turn by the strings and the piano. This melody is worked out extensively before a new theme (clarinet and bassons) enters against the background of a waltz rhythm in the strings. The final movement comes without pause, with an energetic passage for the piano. The orchestra replies with equal vigour. Music of considerable restlessness follows.


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The new composer soon became known abroad. In 1884, Liszt arranged for Glazunov's First Symphony to be performed in Weimar. And five years after that Glazunov himself conducted concerts of Russian music in Paris during the World Fair.

An outstanding master of symphonio music, Glazunov created his own original style while following the traditions of "The Big Five" and of Tchaikovsky. His major works (eight symphonies, overtunes and concertos) are characteristically clear and balanced in their composition, sparkling with a decorative brilliance and the gorgeous coloures of his orchestration.

The content of his composition has a distinctly patriotic flavour manifested not only in the themes but in the entire musical pattern of his works. Wholesome, manly optimism, vitality, beauty and wealth of musical idiom - these features are most typical of Glazunov. He holds one of the most prominent places among those composers who carried on the realistic traditions of Russian classical music at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries.


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At the fifth concert of new "Russian Symphony Concerts", December 5t/17th 1887, Rimsky-Korsakov conducted the first performance of the "Spanish Capriccio" which was received with such enthusiasm that it had to be repeated. The first rehearsal had been interrupted again and again by the applause of the orchestra, and the composer gracefully returned thanks by dedicating the work to them. The "Capriccio" was immediately followed by two other orchestral works of the same exceptionally brilliant type - the "Eastern Overture" and "Sheherazade", both sketched in Petersburg in the early months of 1888 and, as usual, completed in the country. "Sheherazade" was finished on July 26th/August. 7th, almost exactly a year after the completion of the "Capriccio".

These three compositions, Korsakov considered, "close a period of my work, at the end of which my orchestration had attained a considerable degree of virtuosity and warm sonority without Wagnerian influence, limiting myself to the normally considered orchestra used by Glinka".


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Borodin's scientific work left him little time for music. "I am never able to concentrate upon composition", he wrote to a friend in 1876.

"In 1873 some portions of "Prince Igor" were to be performed at a concert", Rimsky-Korsakov writes in his "Memoirs", "I offered Borodin to help him with the scoring of Polovtsian Dances and the final chorus. He brought the unfinished scores to my house and Liadov, he, and I, sharing the work, completed that of the Dances, working for into the night. The final chorus I scored practically alone, Liadov being unable to attend. Thus, thanks to the concert, some parts of "Igor" received their final form".


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A SAD STORY


Three men came to New York for a holiday. They came to a very large hotel and took a room there. Their room was on the forty-fifth floor. In the evening the young men went to the cinema. When the film was over, they went to a restaurant and had supper there. They came back to the hotel very late.

"I am very sorry", said the clerk of the hotel, "but our lifts do not work at night. If you don't want to walk up in your room, you can sleep in the hall".

"No, no", said one of the three men, "no, thank you. We shall walk to our room". Then he said, to his friends, "I think 1 know how to make it easy for us to walk up to the forty-fifth floor. On our way to the room I'll tell you some jokes, then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories".

So they began to walk up to their room. At last they came to thirty-fourth floor. They were very tired by that time, and they, decided to have a rest, "Well",. said Tom, "now it is your turn, Peter. Tell us a story with a sad end".

"I'll tell you a story", said Peter. "It will not be long, but it will be sad enough. Listen. We have left the key to our room in the hall downstairs".


It is your turn — ваша очередь

key — ключ


WHAT HIS LIFE WAS WORTH.


Robert Burns, the great Scottish poet, loved common people and wrote for them. Though he had little formal education, he was well-read and talented. He began to be recognized as a poet when his first poems were published in 1786. He was known as a very witty man.

One day when Burns was walking near the docks, he heard a cry for help. He ran towards the water. At that moment he saw a young sailor jump off a boat that stood near the dock. The sailor began to swim towards the man who was calling for help. Though it was not easy, the sailor saved the man.

The man who was saved from drowning was a very rich merchant. He thanked the brave sailor and gave him a shilling. The sailor was embarrassed.

A large crowd of people gathered round them. All the people considered the sailor to be a hero. They were displeased when the rich man gave the brave soldier only a shilling.

Many of the people shouted loudly and protested against it. But the rich merchant did not pay any attention to them.

At the moment Robert Burns approached the crowd and wondered what the matter was. He was told the whole story.

He was not surprised at the behavior of the rich merchant and said:

"Let him alone. The gentleman is the best judge of what his life is worth".


common - простой

witty – остроумный

docks — доки

to drown — тонуть

behavior — поведение

let him alone — отпустите его

judge — судья

to be worth — стоить
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